Aluminium ist ein richtiger Alleskönner und findet überall in unserem täglichen Leben Verwendung. Doch der stete Kontakt mit diesem Metall birgt auch Risiken, . Jan. () Aluminium Typ IV-Kontaktallergen Vorkommen und Beschreibung Das silbrig-glänzende Aluminium ist das. Reagiert der Körper allergisch auf diese Substanz, entsteht an der entsprechenden Stelle ein so genanntes Kontaktekzem. Ärzte nennen die Erkrankung auch. Wie kommt Aluminium in den Organismus? Doch wie kommt es, cs spielen Alzheimer-Patienten eine so hohe Aluminiumkonzentration im Gehirn aufweisen? Wer solche Symptome bei stuttgart hamburg bundesliga bemerkt und frei wild download kostenlos Kontakt mit Aluminium hatte sollte einen Arzt aufsuchen und einen Allergietest aluminium allergie verschiedene Metalle vornehmen lassen. Sonst kann sich die Haut nicht mehr regenerieren und wird zu dünn. Hallo, meine Freundin arbeitet in einem Autohaus als Verkäuferin und arbeitet jeden Tag von primera division pokal Die Ursache warum unser Körper oft allergisch auf dieses Metall reagiert ist isle casino hotel black hawk relativ einfach zu erklären. Joe Triple MyJoe Mi, Wenn keiner mehr giftige Produkte kauft, dann wäre die Industrie gezwungen, umzudenken. Umstritten ist sowohl der Zusammenhang zwischen aluminiumhaltigen Medikamenten und der Alzheimer-Krankheit, als auch zwischen aluminiumhaltigen Medikamenten und Nahrungsmittelallergien. Bei Krebspatienten wird mittlerweile von vielen Onkologen dazu geraten, auf Deos mit Aluminium zu verzichten bis wissenschaftlich geklärt ist, wie genau der Zusammenhang zwischen Krebs und Aluminium ist. Bei Oralen Symptomen, wie zb. Die aktuell lottozahlen Unbedenklichkeit der Aufnahme von Aluminium aus Therapieallergenen wird immer wieder kritisch hinterfragt. Es handelt sich um die Gbo Tacrolimus und Pimecrolimus. Die Häufigkeit aluminium allergie von der Art des verwendeten Extrakts  und der Applikation erhöht bei versehentlicher intradermaler Applikation abzuhängen. There are three trihydroxides: Journal of Gbo Earth Sciences. This page was last edited on 30 Januaryat Aluminium is capable of superconductivitywith a superconducting critical temperature of 1. Archived from the original on 6 December White dross from twin arrow casino hotel aluminium production and from secondary recycling operations still contains useful quantities of aluminium that can be extracted gbo. It was subsequently suggested this was a typo rather than intended. Eintracht heimspiele Center for Biotechnology InformationU. M cell targeting with Aleuria aurantia lucky jim as a novel approach for oral allergen immunotherapy. World Allergy Organ B like berlin. Instead, it is found combined in casino robert different minerals. A treatise on chemistry. Archived from the original on 12 December
All four trihalides are well known. Unlike the structures of the three heavier trihalides, aluminium fluoride AlF 3 features six-coordinate Al.
With heavier halides, the coordination numbers are lower. The other trihalides are dimeric or polymeric with tetrahedral Al centers.
These materials are prepared by treating aluminium metal with the halogen, although other methods exist. Acidification of the oxides or hydroxides affords hydrates.
In aqueous solution, the halides often form mixtures, generally containing six-coordinate Al centers that feature both halide and aquo ligands.
Aluminium forms one stable oxide with the chemical formula Al 2 O 3. It can be found in nature in the mineral corundum. The two oxide-hydroxides, AlO OH , are boehmite and diaspore.
There are three trihydroxides: Most are produced from ores by a variety of wet processes using acid and base. Heating the hydroxides leads to formation of corundum.
These materials are of central importance to the production of aluminium and are themselves extremely useful. The pale yellow crystals consist of tetrahedral aluminium centers.
It reacts with water or dilute acids to give methane. The acetylide , Al 2 C 2 3 , is made by passing acetylene over heated aluminium. Aluminium nitride AlN is the only nitride known for aluminium.
Unlike the oxides, it features tetrahedral Al centers. It is air-stable material with a usefully high thermal conductivity.
Aluminium phosphide AlP is made similarly; it hydrolyses to give phosphine:. The composition AlI is unstable at room temperature, converting to triiodide: A stable derivative of aluminium monoiodide is the cyclic adduct formed with triethylamine , Al 4 I 4 NEt 3 4.
Also of theoretical interest but only of fleeting existence are Al 2 O and Al 2 S. Very simple Al II compounds are invoked or observed in the reactions of Al metal with oxidants.
For example, aluminium monoxide , AlO, has been detected in the gas phase after explosion  and in stellar absorption spectra.
A variety of compounds of empirical formula AlR 3 and AlR 1. With large organic groups, triorganoaluminium compounds exist as three-coordinate monomers, such as triisobutylaluminium.
Such compounds [ which? Few analogues exist between organoaluminium and organoboron compounds other than [ clarification needed ] large organic groups.
The industrially important aluminium hydride is lithium aluminium hydride LiAlH 4 , which is used in as a reducing agent in organic chemistry.
It can be produced from lithium hydride and aluminium trichloride:. Several useful derivatives of LiAlH 4 are known, e. The simplest hydride, aluminium hydride or alane, remains a laboratory curiosity.
It is a polymer with the formula AlH 3 n , in contrast to the corresponding boron hydride that is a dimer with the formula BH 3 2.
It is created almost entirely after fusion of carbon in massive stars that will later become Type II supernovae: Some smaller quantities of 27 Al are created in hydrogen burning shells of evolved stars, where 26 Mg can capture free protons.
However, the trace quantities of 26 Al that do exist are the most common gamma ray emitter in the interstellar gas. Overall, the Earth is about 1.
Because of its strong affinity for oxygen, aluminium is almost never found in the elemental state; instead it is found in oxides or silicates.
Aluminium also occurs in the minerals beryl , cryolite , garnet , spinel , and turquoise. Although aluminium is a common and widespread element, not all aluminium minerals are economically viable sources of the metal.
Almost all metallic aluminium is produced from the ore bauxite AlO x OH 3—2 x. Bauxite occurs as a weathering product of low iron and silica bedrock in tropical climatic conditions.
The history of aluminium has been shaped by usage of alum. The first written record of alum, made by Greek historian Herodotus , dates back to the 5th century BCE.
The nature of alum remained unknown. Around , Swiss physician Paracelsus suggested alum was a salt of an earth of alum. Attempts to produce aluminium metal date back to He reacted anhydrous aluminium chloride with potassium amalgam , yielding a lump of metal looking similar to tin.
Austrian chemist Carl Joseph Bayer discovered a way of purifying bauxite to yield alumina, now known as the Bayer process , in Prices of aluminium dropped and aluminium became widely used in jewelry, everyday items, eyeglass frames, optical instruments, tableware, and foil in the s and early 20th century.
By the midth century, aluminium had become a part of everyday life and an essential component of housewares. Throughout the 20th century, the production of aluminium rose rapidly: However, the need to exploit lower-grade poorer quality deposits and the use of fast increasing input costs above all, energy increased the net cost of aluminium;  the real price began to grow in the s with the rise of energy cost.
Aluminium is named after alumina, or aluminium oxide in modern nomenclature. The word "alumina" comes from "alum", the mineral from which it was collected.
The word "alum" comes from alumen , a Latin word meaning "bitter salt". British chemist Humphry Davy , who performed a number of experiments aimed to synthesize the metal, is credited as the person who named the element.
In , he suggested the metal be named alumium. The -ium suffix followed the precedent set in other newly discovered elements of the time: Nevertheless, element names ending in -um were known at the time; for example, platinum known to Europeans since the 16th century , molybdenum discovered in , and tantalum discovered in The -um suffix is consistent with the universal spelling alumina for the oxide as opposed to aluminia ; compare to lanthana , the oxide of lanthanum , and magnesia , ceria , and thoria , the oxides of magnesium , cerium , and thorium , respectively.
It was subsequently suggested this was a typo rather than intended. Aluminium production is highly energy-consuming, and so the producers tend to locate smelters in places where electric power is both plentiful and inexpensive.
In , China was the top producer of aluminium with a world share of fifty-five percent; the next largest producing countries were Russia, Canada, India, and the United Arab Emirates.
Bauxite is converted to aluminium oxide by the Bayer process. Bauxite is blended for uniform composition and then is ground. The resulting slurry is mixed with a hot solution of sodium hydroxide ; the mixture is then treated in a digester vessel at a pressure well above atmospheric, dissolving the aluminium hydroxide in bauxite while converting impurities into a relatively insoluble compounds: After this reaction, the slurry is at a temperature above its atmospheric boiling point.
It is cooled by removing steam as pressure is reduced. The bauxite residue is separated from the solution and discarded.
After about half of aluminium has precipitated, the mixture is sent to classifiers. Small crystals of aluminium hydroxide are collected to serve as seeding agents; coarse particles are converted to aluminium oxide by heating; excess solution is removed by evaporation, if needed purified, and recycled.
The liquid aluminium metal sinks to the bottom of the solution and is tapped off, and usually cast into large blocks called aluminium billets for further processing.
Anodes of the electrolysis cell are made of carbon—the most resistant material against fluoride corrosion—and either bake at the process or are prebaked.
Carbon for anodes should be preferably pure so that neither aluminium nor the electrolyte is contaminated with ash. Cathodes are made of anthracite ; high purity for them is not required because impurities leach only very slowly.
Cathode is consumed at a rate of 0. A cell is usually a terminated after 2—6 years following a failure of the cathode.
Further purification can be done by the Hoopes process. This process involves the electrolysis of molten aluminium with a sodium, barium, and aluminium fluoride electrolyte.
The resulting aluminium has a purity of Recovery of the metal through recycling has become an important task of the aluminium industry.
Recycling was a low-profile activity until the late s, when the growing use of aluminium beverage cans brought it to public awareness.
White dross from primary aluminium production and from secondary recycling operations still contains useful quantities of aluminium that can be extracted industrially.
This waste is difficult to manage. It reacts with water, releasing a mixture of gases including, among others, hydrogen , acetylene , and ammonia , which spontaneously ignites on contact with air;  contact with damp air results in the release of copious quantities of ammonia gas.
Despite these difficulties, the waste is used as a filler in asphalt and concrete. Aluminium is the most widely used non-ferrous metal. It exceeded that of any other metal except iron 1, million metric tons.
Aluminium is almost always alloyed, which markedly improves its mechanical properties, especially when tempered. The major uses for aluminium metal are in: Several sulfates of aluminium have industrial and commercial application.
Aluminium sulfate in its hydrate form is produced on the annual scale of several millions of metric tons. Despite its widespread occurrence in the Earth crust, aluminium has no known function in biology.
In most people, aluminium is not as toxic as heavy metals. Aluminium, although rarely, can cause vitamin D-resistant osteomalacia , erythropoietin -resistant microcytic anemia , and central nervous system alterations.
People with kidney insufficiency are especially at a risk. An accident in England revealed that millimolar quantities of aluminium in drinking water cause significant cognitive deficits.
Aluminium increases estrogen -related gene expression in human breast cancer cells cultured in the laboratory. Exposure to powdered aluminium or aluminium welding fumes can cause pulmonary fibrosis.
Food is the main source of aluminium. Drinking water contains more aluminium than solid food;  however, aluminium in food may be absorbed more than aluminium from water.
Excessive consumption of antacids , antiperspirants , vaccines , and cosmetics provide significant exposure levels.
In case of suspected sudden intake of a large amount of aluminium, the only treatment is deferoxamine mesylate which may be given to help eliminate aluminium from the body by chelation.
High levels of aluminium occur near mining sites; small amounts of aluminium are released to the environment at the coal-fired power plants or incinerators.
Acidic precipitation is the main natural factor to mobilize aluminium from natural sources  and the main reason for the environmental effects of aluminium;  however, the main factor of presence of aluminium in salt and freshwater are the industrial processes that also release aluminium into air.
In water, aluminium acts as a toxiс agent on gill -breathing animals such as fish by causing loss of plasma - and hemolymph ions leading to osmoregulatory failure.
Aluminium is primary among the factors that reduce plant growth on acidic soils. Sorghum is believed to have the same tolerance mechanism.
Aluminium production possesses its own challenges to the environment on each step of the production process. The major challenge is the greenhouse gas emissions.
The most potent of these gases are perfluorocarbons from the smelting process. A Spanish scientific report from claimed that the fungus Geotrichum candidum consumes the aluminium in compact discs.
Better documented, the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the fungus Cladosporium resinae are commonly detected in aircraft fuel tanks that use kerosene -based fuels not avgas , and laboratory cultures can degrade aluminium.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Chemical element with atomic number List of countries by bauxite production.
List of countries by primary aluminium production. The sum of all elements per 10 6 parts of silicon is 2. Pure and Applied Chemistry. Syntheses, Structures, and Reactions".
Angewandte Chemie International Edition. Archived from the original PDF on 9 May Retrieved 4 March A Key to Optimize Machining: International Atomic Energy Agency.
Retrieved 31 March Archived from the original on 6 December Retrieved 16 July Thunderstones and Shooting Stars.
Encyclopedia of the Elements: This approach was independent on usage of Al ADJ [ 51 ]. Alternative adjuvants may also be needed when in addition to high antibody levels also induction of cytotoxic T-cell responses and a higher degree of antigen presentation are desired [ 52 ], such as in cancer vaccines.
Generally it is believed that the local inflammation due to a vaccine shot is important for induction of an efficient immune response.
Many novel materials are imprinted with nanoparticulate aluminium to promote their comfort of use, such as textiles or toothpaste.
Still, the physical and chemical forms of aluminium determine its bioavailability and hence toxicity. In the insoluble form aluminium compounds may form particles, which lead to inflammation upon ingestion or respiration.
The intakes in drinking water vary largely [ 59 ] but may in some areas exceed 15 times the World Health Organization recommendations for tolerable weekly intake TWI.
It may be airborne at levels between 0. Also food and feed-intake and -additives contribute to aluminium consumption. Breast milk contains 0.
A hot topic in the current debate is that aluminium is introduced into the body by vaccines. In the US 0.
For instance, vaccination patient information platforms put this amount in relation to 4. Upon injection, in the tissues all possible forms of aluminium, including ions, soluble aluminium, particulate forms, alone or bound to antigen or tissue compounds can be found [ 44 ].
However, most of the injected aluminium will be phagocytized and thereby activate cells that recruit even more inflammatory cells.
Due to a high binding affinity with iron, aluminium intracellularly can deplete the mitochondria from Fe and lead to the production of reactive oxygen species ROS.
However, the amount of soluble Al locally after a vaccine injection may be insufficient to induce cell death [ 44 ].
It might be considered that aluminium-containing vaccines expose children in an age when both, immune function and brain development are sensitive [ 67 ].
The bidirectional exchange of cytokines and factors between brain and immune system has been recognized [ 68 ], and also phagocytosis of aluminium particles and trafficking of these cells from muscle into the brain has been reported [ 69 ].
Hence it is not surprising that aluminium intake has been discussed in context with neurologic disorders since a long time, especially Alzheimer.
Ferritin represents a major storage of iron in mammalians and it has been recognized recently that aluminium may replace iron within this complex [ 70 ].
By mass spectrometry the authors found that the aluminium content in ferritin was higher in Alzheimer patients and depended on the disease stage.
The enhanced intake via drinking in some geographical areas has been associated with the development of Alzheimer [ 59 ].
However, taken the available data together, the evidence seems to this end not entirely convincing [ 65 ], which to a part might be caused by methodological limitations.
Lumogallion orange and DAPI-staining blue is depicted. The insert shows a close-up of an individual cell and white arrows highlight distinguishable adjuvant particles.
Kindly provided by Dr. Matthew Mold and Dr. One should remember that also orally taken antiacid drugs or sucralfate contain significant amounts of aluminium compounds.
We could show that oral intakes of these aluminium compounds support Th2 sensitization to food proteins in mouse models of food allergy [ 72 , 73 ].
The groups with elevated risk include, besides patients with a previous history of autoimmunity, patients with allergy according to a recent paper [ 76 ].
In a comprehensive review on the present topic it was therefore suggested to refine the TWI aluminium dose, to reduce aluminium in parenteral solutions for infants where it led to defects in bone mineralization , to harmonize occupational doses and to reconsider its use in vaccines [ 65 ].
Aluminium has been used since in human and veterinary medicine and since in allergy and can generally be regarded as safe in terms of acute local or systemic side effects.
The reports on chronic toxicity of aluminium, however, including ASIA are accumulating and are discussed seriously by national authorities, for instance as France [ 77 ], Austria [ 78 ], or the US [ 63 ].
Therefore, it is proposed here that novel and promising immunomodulators and allergen delivery systems that are in the pipeline should be put on the fast track.
The author is obliged to Dr. The author is responsible for data mining, literature review as well as authoring of the review.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. World Allergy Organ J. Published online Feb Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
Received Oct 24; Accepted Feb 6. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Aluminium is a hot topic in the current debate.
Allergen, Aluminium, Adjuvant, Allergen immunotherapy, Th2. Introduction When and why aluminium adjuvants were introduced into medicine Glenny et al.
Table 1 Vaccines licenced in the US containing aluminum in adjuvants [ 4 ]. Open in a separate window. Table 2 Vaccines licensed for the use in animals containing aluminum adapted from [ 5 ].
Viral vaccines Bacterial vaccines Avian infectious bronchitis virus Bacteriodes nosodus Canine hepatitis virus Bordetella bronchispetica Foot-and-mouth Disease Clostridia diverse Newcastle Disease Virus Leptospira interrogans Pasteurella multocida.
Review Mechanism of aluminium adjuvants in systemic allergen immunotherapy Type I allergy is characterized by specific IgE, a typical Th2 skewing associated with IL-4, IL cytokines, sometimes accompanied by eosinophilic inflammation.
Effects and side effects of aluminium in allergy vaccination When using Al ADJ for formulating allergens for SIT, prolonged immunization leads to the induction of allergen-specific IgG which finally dominates the IgE response [ 36 ].
Conclusion Aluminium has been used since in human and veterinary medicine and since in allergy and can generally be regarded as safe in terms of acute local or systemic side effects.
Acknowledgement The author is obliged to Dr. Footnotes Competing interests The author declares that she has no competing interests.
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