Toft hansen geschwister

toft hansen geschwister

Okt. Es gibt kaum einen Moment, in dem Henrik Toft Hansen kein Grinsen im Gesicht hat. Auch die anderen Geschwister werfen gern mit Bällen. René Toft Hansen (* 1. November in Rybjerg, Skive Kommune) ist ein dänischer Handballspieler. Inhaltsverzeichnis. 1 Karriere. Verein; Apr. Aber beim Handball-Paar Ulrika Agren (27) & Henrik Toft Hansen (28) herrscht Gut möglich, dass Familienmensch Henrik (vier Geschwister).

On the other hand, all class-rooms must be ventilated at the end of every lesson, both winter and summer, by opening all doors and windows.

The length of this airing should be governed by the weather; in Dresden the following rule has been proposed: How great a reduc- tion in the amount of carbonic acid in a room may be made in this way is shown by figures from Dankwarth.

After doors and windows had been opened, with four persons remaining ja the room, he found the foUowing a. While the ventilation is going on, the pupils go into the yard or corridors, and in this way get a little exer- cise and bring fresh air back with them in their cloth- ing.

The hall windows are accordingly opened during recitations and closed dnring recesses when the rooms are being ventilated.

It is especially necessary to have prolonged ventilation of this sort between the forenoon and afternoon sessions, though it is gen- erally omitted entirely in cold weather, Accordingly, a decree of the Prussian Cultua-Minister rightly re- quires that the windows of class-rooms shall be open even at night in warm summer weather; at other times till dark, and from four in the morning.

Experiments made at the Hygienic Institute of the j University of Budapest testify to the success of this plan. During the summer the windows were first kept open dnring the day and closed at night, and then the reverse ; and in each case the temperature of the room was compared with that of the outside air.

On the other hand, if cleanlineas does not prcviiil in the school-room and the air is constautly being pol- luted by filth, no amount of ventilation will prove sufficient.

Cleanliness should extend in the first place to the pupils themselves. Not only ought their hodiea to be scrupulously clean, but also their clothes and shoes.

In connection with this matter the school shower- baths introduced by the city of Gottingen deserve more attention from higher institutions of learning than they have hitherto received.

For one thing they promote the cleanliness of the skin; and for another, they lead the pupils to desire clean underclothing. The school should provide ample facilities for the pupils to wash themselves.

Pupils with diseases that infect the air demand apeeial ] attention. Those with an ill-smelling discharge from 1 the ear mnat he suspended until completely cured.

The pestilential odor from perspiring feet sometimes defies all treatment; but even in this case we ought to insist at least on an attempt at betterment.

The roost effective measure against the odors from ulcer- ated, decaying teeth ia the introduction of a regular care of the teeth; and the school must do its part to Cleanliness must also be mainlained with respect.

Since dirt and dust coUest mostly on the floors, the proper construction and care of these is of great importance. Too soft wood or too narrow boards must not be used.

The first slivers easily and is not durable enough; it, moreover, absorbs moisture readily and dries very slowly, so that rooms with such floors when scrubbed have a smell even the next day.

Too narrow and lathlike flooring increases unnecessarily the number of cracks into which dust may settle.

Matched floors of oak or American hard pine are prob- ably the best for schools. They must in any case be kept in order, and any cracks or seams that may arise must be closed up at once.

Linoleum has lately been used in many places as a covering for achool-room floors. In fact, it fulfills all the requirements that have to be made of a good floor.

It is elastic, waterproof, wholly free from cracks or holes, permanent, and very durable. It has the further advantage of deadening the noise made by the feet of the children; and it can be easily und thoroughly swept and washed.

In the ease of schools with two sessions this may best be done on the free afternoons of Wednesdays and Saturdays. Daily sweeping would be still better.

To prevent the raising of dust, the floor must be covered with plenty of wet sawdust, tanning bark, or turf powder, which should have been moistened with warm water.

With dry sweeping the dust cannot be thoroughly removed. Since entries, corridors, and stairways are particu- I larly exposed to dirt, two sweepings per week will not A be enough for them ; but they must be swept daily with [ wet sawdust or the like and be scrubbed every week.

One or two wet sweepings per week is sufficient for the assembly halls, since they are less used ; but they ought to be washed out several days before every sehool festival.

Libraries, physical and natural science cabinets, and chemical laboratories do not need to be cleaned so often ; brushing them out once or twice a month in the wet way will be sufficient.

Oiled and parquetry floors should he cleaned with warm water, soap, and scrub- bing-rag; and unoiled floors with warm water, sand, soap, acrnhbing broom, or brush.

In like manner the wainacoating and furniture ahould be washed with warm water and soap, as should also the windows both inside and outside.

Furthermore, all door knob a, mountings, lamps, gas fixtures, chandeliers, busts, pic- tures, charts, and blackboarda, aa well as all heatiug apparatus, stoves, etc.

Special care is to be exercised in cleaning the books belonging to the teacher and the school library, the history collection, and the physical and chemical apparatus.

This should be done under the direction of the librarian and the corresponding department teachers. The shelves should first be wiped with a moist cloth and then rubbed with a dry one.

How detrimental dirty gymnastic halls may be to the health of the pupils has lately been brought out clearly by F. Schmidt, Die Staubschiidigungen beim Hallenturnen und ihre Bekiimpfung.

They may even act as carjriers of pathogenic bacteria aud produce infectious diseases. The entrance of the germs of consumption into the most delicate alveolar parts of the lungs is especially promoted by deep breathing and therefore by gymnastics.

The bringing in of duet into gymnastic halls is. Pupils should on this account before entering put on clean gymnasium shoes in special dressing rooms.

To prevent the production of dust in the exercises, mats should be used as litde as possible. Those made of cocoa fibers ought to be discarded altogether.

Aside from the fact that it is easy to slip on them, and that they can not be used for high jumping, they are dust catchers of the first order.

On the other hand, little dust can get into mats with leather covers on both sides, especially if the seams have been care-, fully made.

After having been used they should he placed so as not to bring the dusty underside of one into contact with the upper side of another.

After such cleansing, the walls are to be dusted dry, and the apparatus then wiped off with a moist clothe It is also a very good plan to clear the air at the end of every gymnastic lesson by sprinkling with a hose or sprinkling can, the former having the preference because it enables us to reach the upper layers of air.

That the miasma from closets can very greatly pollute the air is sufficiently well known. These ought therefore to be located in out-houses and connected with the main buildings by covered walks.

If they are placed in the school building itself, they ought to be accessible only from the corridors, and that by means of an ante-room which is easily venti- lated.

Between the closet and coridor there should be two self-closing doors. To make it possible to clean the floors more easily they should be made waterproof.

The bowls must also be waterproof and had better be made of castiron or stone-ware. CaakB ought to have overflow pipes with catch basins underneath.

They should moreover be placed in special, easily accessible chambers with waterproof floors and plenty of light and air. Great care should be taken to give the discharge pipe an air- tight connection with casks.

Where vaults are used for school privies, they should have a cement wall separate from the walls of the Bchool-house and should be impervious to water, the inside, the cracks should be filled with a coating of asphalt.

To facilitate emptying they should have concave bottoms and concave corners. They mast also have waterproof and fairly airtight coverings.

Whatever the kind of closet in use in a school, it is absolutely necessary to keep it constantly clean, and as odorless as possible.

Since eapenence shows that the reverse is often true, directors and teachers ought not to consider it below their dignity to inspect them repeatedly.

Aside from this inspection, the scouring of the floors and the seats once or twice a week regu- larly will best promote cleanliness. Foul-smelling gases are best removed by a ventilating flue extending from the cask room or vault to the foundation wall and then up over the gable of the roof.

If it is built near a chimney or if a flame is kept burning in it, the current of air generated will promote the escape of miasma.

For deodorizing or disinfecting the contents of the closets, turf powder deserves high recommendation, especially if super-phosphate in the proportion of 1 to 5 is added.

The latter at the same time increases the value of the excreta for fertilizing purposes. Lime may also be used as a disinfectant when added in sufficient quantities to render the contents strongly alkaline.

For this purpose 2. This process has this disadvantage that it is difficult to get the lime everywhere in close contact with the refuse materials.

Where deodorization and disinfection do not take place, the vaults should be emptied by means of a pump as often as possible, — at least every two or three months, provided they are not filled before.

The pungent odor given off by urinals because of the liberation of ammonia in the decomposition of urea, should be removed by a permanent flow of water.

If it is impossible to arrange for the flow of water, the wet places should be sprinkled regularly with powdered carbolic acid, which is usually colored red to prevent poisoning.

According aa heating apparatus ia designed for warming single rooms or several rooms at the same time, we may speak ol separate and general heating, respectively.

For the former stoves are used and for the latter large central heating plants. To settle the question whether stoves or central heat- ing plants are to be prefeiTed, economical, technical, pedagogical, and hygienic items must be considered.

As to economy the original outlay for stoves is less than that for central plants. For even the cheapest central plant, namely the hot air system, costs about 65 cts.

In making this comparison we must, however, take this fact into consideration that the stoves heat only the school-rooms and offices, while central plants also heat the stairways, corridors, ante-rooms, water-cloaeta, etc.

The operating expenses for stoves are also greater than those for central heat- ing plants. In 30 schools in Vienna it was found that the annual expense for fuel and janitor per cbm.

Prom a technical point of view the disadvantages of atove-heating become still more apparent. It is well- known that schools especially those of larger cities owing to the expensivenese of building sites, are liable to suffer from lack of room.

This evil is counteracted to a certain extent by using central heating plants, because these are located in otherwise almost useless rooms in the basement.

On the other hand if stoves are used, they not only occupy more or less room them- selves but some floor space is also lost by shortening the neighboring seats in order not to expose individual pupils to extreme heat.

Another technical objection to the stove is the in- convenience experienced in caring for it. It is evi- dent that to supply a number of places with fuel takes more trouble than to supply only one, and also that it is more burdensome to attend to more than one fire than to attend to one only.

Lastly, danger of fire increases with the increase in the number of stoves, whereas the concentration.

From a pedagogical atand-point it may be said that the repeated attention required by stoves especially the old style iron stoves, disturbs the work of the school.

Moreover, when the temperature is either too high or too low, the janitor has to be notified and this again interrupts the recitations, while with the more recent central plants the temperature of the room can be ascertained outside and can be regulated without entering the room.

In the discussion of the heating question, however, the hygienic side is of pre-eminent importance. The ideal in this respect is to have an absolutely uniform temperature throughout the room, since it is disa- greeable to have a rapid decrease o temperature from the ceiling to the floor.

In the latter case the head is exposed to a high and the feet to a low temperature, while the old Salernitan rule demauds that the head be kept cool and the feet warm.

With a stove, as we know, it is impossible to heat a given room unifonnly in all its parts. I Another hygienic advantage which the central has I over the separate heating method is that it brings more I air into the room.

A stove will serve far less aatiafao- 1 torily for this purpose, since it can he only of moderate I size, if the first cost and the running expenses are not I to be too great ; and it will therefore not be able to I bring about the required changes of air in the room.

I On the other hand, with a central plant the introduc- I tion of pure and the removal of impure air can be I regulated in a mathematically definite way.

This en- I ables us to furnish the amount of air required in any I given place, I Accordingly, where the location and construction do I not prevent it, large school -buildings ought to be pro- I Tided with central heating plants.

In fact they are 1 found in the public schools of most large cities, as for 1 instance almost without exception in Berlin, Hamburg, I Munich, and Frankfort a.

The use of stoves I may, however, be considered allowable in schools with I only a few rooms, since the hygenic disadvantages are I not so great that stoves must be absolutely forbidden.

I Stoves may beat he placed near the middle of I the long wall opposite the windows. Tile stoTes are not well adapted for Bcliool purposes because they heat up too slowly, fur- nish insufficient ventilation, and cousume too much.

Nor can the iron cylinder or cannon stove — so-called on account of its shape— be recommended for schools.

The brisk fire in these stoves, it is true, draws the air from the floor of the school-room, and thus aids ven- tilation; but as an offset, they consume a great deal of fuel and must bo filled repeatedly.

But regulable reservoir stoves, which have a large jacket or casing and heat the incoming air only mod- erately, may be said to be satisfactory.

Of these there are many diGerent kinds. AVe shall mention only the Jacobi or Meissiier, the KaiserlaJtern, and Wolpert and Meidinger, reservoir stoves, the Kiiufler and Keidel patented stoves, and the somewhat similar Irifh and American base burners or self-feeders.

According to the test made by the hygienic institute of Berlin, the Kiiuffer Parlor stove and the large Keidel patented stoves keep the most permanent fire.

This holds true of the smaller ones of this kind only when anthracite is used. Within the wide casing of the Keidel stove, the incoming air from the outside is only moderately irarmed; and a sufficient quantity — about ten times as mucli B8 is furnished by the Meidinger stove, — is introduced into the room withont creating drafts.

The disadvantages of heating with illuminating gas, according to Ostender, are, aside from the heavy running expenses, the vitiation of the air by overheated heating surfaces and filling the school-room with gas.

Meidinger, however, has proved that these criticisms tre not correct. But we must concede the greater expense of gae heating.

For one room the expense per hour was, for in- stance, in Cologne, where gas is 3J cts. Even with the gas at 1 ct. On the other hand, the same amount of stove heat costs only IJ cts.

The amount utilized varies between The expense aside, gas stoves have these advantages in their favor, namely, that they require no special fire- man, no room for fuel, no removal of slag and ashes, and that they can be attended to without the least difficulty, since they can be turned on or off at any moment, thus making the regulation of temperature in the school-room very much easier.

In the higher schools of Hamburg where gas heating is used, it ac- cordingly gives complete satisfaction. Whatever sort, of a stove the school may have, the teacher needs to keep a watchful eye on the following points in overseeing it: In the first place, gases from the combustion must not be allowed to escape into the room.

Although many of them produce only a feeling of discomfort, others, especially carbon monoxide, are very detri- mental to health.

On account of poisoning by carbon monoxide, which escaped into a school-room from a defective stove, the pupils showed the following symp- toms up to the fourteenth day: Pain in the forehead CARE OF STOVES and in the temples, heaviness in the head, dizziness, humming of the ears, weakness of memory, dullness, partly sleeplessness, partly sleepiness, pain in the breast, weakness of the legs, lessened patellar reflexes, coated tongues, nausea, diarrhea, and pallor.

It is now believed by many that the red hot walls of an iron stove permit the escape of carbon monoxide. This idea was first defended by Morin.

He based his conclusions on the investigations of St. Moreover, the fire pots of these stoves are lined with fire brick, so that they are in general not liable to get so hot.

Though it is an assured fact that the gases from combustion, especially carbonic oxide, do not pene- trate the walls of iron stoves, such gases may, never- theless, under certain conditions escape from any kind of a stove.

This is least to be feared when the fire is in full blast, because the great difference of tempera- ture between the inside and the outside of the stove gives rise to pressure toward the inside.

In this case the gases do not rush out of the pipes, but on the contrary, air rushes into them. It is only when a stove has been neglected and allowed to develop craoiksss — HEATING which is often the case with school stoves — that gases can escape, when the fire is well under way.

The escape of gas occurs, however, very readily when the fire is being started, because the pipes are not then sufficiently warm to produce the necessary draft.

At such times, especially where there are con- tractions and curves in the pipes, the gases inside may develop a greater pressure and consequently escape into the room.

He must be particularly instructed not to close the dampers in the stovepipe and chimney too soon. With the draft completely closed in this way, carbonic oxide gas, which is a product of incomplete combus- tion, is formed, and escapes into the room through the door or other openings in the stove.

Since even dam- pers with holes in them do not afford sufficient protec- tion against this evil, it it is better to prohibit the use of dampers altogether in schools.

Central Heating Plants These are designated steam, air, or water heating systems according as the heat conducting agent is steam, air, or water.

Several of these agents may, however, be used simultaneously when we have steam- water heaters, steam-air heaters, etc. Where this method is used complaints from the teacher are often heard.

The most general one is that the air is too dry. This dryness is, however, frequently oniy apparent. If dust, for instance has settled on the heating surface of the furnace or if dust laden air comes in contact with it, the dust particles are scorched ; and burnt products are produced, which irritate the mucous membranes of the throat and eyes, causing a disagreeable feeling of dryness.

The temperature of the heating surface must therefore be kept low ; and the settling of duat on it must be prevented as far as possible.

The first can be done by lining the fire-pot and adjacent parts with Chumotte stone ; and the latter, by not haviug large horizontal heating surfaces, and making those we have, smooth and not corrugated outside, to facilitate cleaning.

Teachers must see to it that the cleaning be done with regularity. The air may, on the other hand, really become too dry in hot-air heating.

Whether this is so or not can be determined by the relative humidity, that is, the ratio of the amount of aqueous vapor in a cubic meter of air to the maximum it might contain at this temperature.

One of them would without the knowledge of the other produce different degrees of humidity in the air of a room for the other to describe by his feelings.

Neither could do this, since the temperature of the room and the general condition of the body played too great a part.

For this reason only limiting values, wide apart, can be given as to the proper degree of humidity in a school-room.

According to Eubner there should be: Zeitschrift fiir Schulgesund- heitspaege, , No. If we assume that 1, cbm.

If there is a lack of moisture, we should aHcertaln whether the water tank in the heating chamber has an evaporating surface large enough to fulfill these requirements ; and if it has, whether it is always sufficiently full of water ; the self -regulating stop cocks may sometimes be.

Another defect often found in hot-air heating is the unequal distribution of the beat in the room. In another room heated by the hot-air system, a thermometer hanging 0.

This difference of temperature between the different horizontal layers of air in a school-room is first of all detrimental to the teacher. The pupils are similarly affected, and manifest it by yawning, by inattention, and by an inclination to rest their heads on their hands.

According to what has been said, it would be well for teachers employed in schools heated by the hot air system to measure the temperature repeatedly in different parts of the room.

It is true, that such differences when found can be remedied often only with great difficulty, and sometimes not at all. Zeitschrift fiir Schulgesundheits- phege, , No.

To accomplish this we should have to iucrease the cross-section of the pipes in the wall; this would require a change in the building and often even a complete reconstruction of the school.

We must note, finally, that the above mentioned differences of temperature, as a rule, occur only with old hot air systems, while the more recent give in this respect very satisfactory results.

Hot Water Systems heat the water which serves in this case as the distributing medium in conducting pipes, which are either open or closed to the air.

This is called the warm water or the low- pressure system. With closed pipes, or the so-called hot water sys- tem, the temperature of the water can be raised as high as is desired.

The medium pressure system is somewhat better. Moreover, the high pressure may prevent the valves which regulate the heat from working satisfactorily.

The necessary pipes or flues in the walls would be lacking for hot-air heat- ing, whereas the small pipes of this medium pressure svstem can be introduced anvwhero without much difficulty.

Warm water systems are, however, at all ]VMnts bet- ter than hot water systems. Steam beating systems are coming more and mora into use. These are also designated respectively as low or high-pressure systems, according to the press- are in the pipes.

High pressure steam systems are probably never installed in schools, because the use of high-pressure boilers in inhabited buildings is forbid- den on account of the danger from explosion.

Like all other steam and water systems, they have this advantage over the hot-air heating that with them ventilation and heating are separated.

One may be in operation with- out the other, or they may work together in varying degrees; whereas the closing of the register in a hot- air system reduces the ventilation to a minimum.

An- other advantage is the low temperature of the heating surface in the low pressure steam system, the ntUity of which has been discussed before.

To prevent a waste of fuel with a continuous fire, the draft in the furnace and consequently the heating itself should be regulated automatically by the steam pressure in the boiler.

When, for instance, the radiator on account of a high temperature in the room gives off less heat, it increases the pressure in the boiler.

This increased pressure closes the furnace draft and lets in less air to the fire, which then quiets down a little. If, on the other hand, the radiation of heat is increased, the steam pressure decreases and the draft is opened and the amount of air admitted to the fire is greater.

Lately the indirect low-pressure steam systems have been recommended more strongly than the direct low- pressure steam system.

With respect to the last point, the indirect low-pres- sure steam systems have a further advantage over the hot-air systems. With the latter, the air may be pol- luted by gases escaping from the cracks, while this is absolutely impossible with the former.

According to reports from Vienna these indirect low- pressure steam systems have proved eminently satisfac- tory in the schools of that city; and will therefore in the future be used exclusively.

With a good plan, proper installation, and careful operation by an experi- enced fireman, no inconveniences at all can arise from them.

The former have the advantage that they can not be put away or knocked down; the latter that they make the cleaning of the room easier.

Since the heat takes eilect only after some time, it is best, especially when the children are young and the weather is very cold, to give them some gymuaatic esercisea, or else allow them to run a few moments on the play-ground till the rooms become comfortable.

A mistake is often made at the Christmas or Easter vacation by not beginuing to heat the building one or two days before school opens.

If the heating ia only , begun the morning of the first day it is impossible to raise the air in the now thoroughly cooled rooms to the proper temperature.

The heating apparatus is, also, usually overtaxed at this time because the fireman tries to do in a few hours what it would take him at least a day to accomplish.

Hot-air furnaces are es- pecially liable to be ruined in this way, and an over- heating of the fire-pot and burning out of the grate has been observed even in the case of the low-pressure steam system.

The temperature consequently fell to Noth with standing this, we must aim at a constant temperature iu the school-room and for this purpose test it repeatedly, A thermometer should accordingly be hung up in every class-room about 1.

A standardized thermo- meter had better be procured, if the expense does not have to be avoided. Zeitachrift fiir Schuigp- aundheitspflege, , So. In Germany, we often find the tempera- ture at the end of every recitation recorded in the class book ; but a curve gives a more evident picture of the matter than a table of figures, and is just as easily constructed.

In order to maintain normal temperature in school- rooms, attempts have lately been made to assist the fire- man by means of instruments which would indicate the temperature of the rooms by some signal near the furnace.

To this class of instruments belong the dis- tance thermometer of Bonnesen, and the central ap- paratus for electric temperature signals by Bastelmann and others.

The former consists of a barometer tube placed in the furnace room in the cellar; of a tin cylinder filled with absolutely dry air and placed in every room; and of a capillary lead tube, which con- nects the cylinder with the short arm of the barometer.

A change of temperature in the room causes a change of the pressure of the air in the cylinder, which is- then communicated by the capillary tube to the fur- nace room, where the temperature of the rooms can be read on the scale of the barometei.

These thermometers are suspended in the Bchool-room and are connected with the signal board When the mercury rises bo that it touches the platinum wires, an electrical circuit is closed by means of pres- sure on the corresponding contact buttons a, b, c, d, e, f, in figure 10 , and this releases an indicator on the signal board.

These in- struments should be tested not only when they are put up, but every now and then afterwards by the physicist of the school.

For it is olear that an incorrectly constructed school bench occupied by pupils daily four to six hours for twelve years must necessarily prove injurious to their physical development.

Moreover, the school work suffers, since a seat which compels pupils to sit or stand uncomfort- ably leads to rapid fatigue.

The two accordingly resemble the rockera on a rocking chair; and so touch the seat in two points only. Now two points are not sufficient to fix the position of a plane.

A third is necessary; or else a line par- allel to the line joining the points of contract of the twe seat bones. If a plummet be dropped from the centre of gravity of the trunk upon this triangular supporting surface, it will strike it in a point back of the connecting line of the two seat bones.

This may, accordingly, be called the backward sitting position. Besides this we haye the forward sitting position.

In this the body rests on the two seat bones and on the line of contact of the thighs with the edge of the seat. If we imagine a perpendicular dropped from the centre of gravity of the trunk upon the plane thus determined, it will strike it in front of the connecting line of the seat bones.

The trunk can not only be moved aa a whole on the hip joints, but since it has inner articnlationa it can change shape within itself.

To prevent the trunk from getting such curvatures and at the same time to keep it from falling backward or forward in the corresponding sit- ting positions, a great many muscles have to be ad- justed.

They, however, become fatigued in time and we find in the case of tired, feeble, or sleeping persons that not only has the whole body fallen forward but the spinal column has received a certain curvature.

The muscles employed in sitting upright must, there- fore be given a chance to recuperate by being relieved now and then. There is no other way of doing this than by leaning against the back of the seat in the backward sitting position; and in the forward position by resting the arms on the top of the desk or placing the breast against its rear edge.

The latter should not, however, be permitted, since the pressure on the chest will interfere with breathing, and endanger the lungs.

The only thing left is to lean against the back of the chair or place the arm on the desk. That an upright position is possible in the latter case will be made evident by figure 11, the reproduction of the photograph of a writing class.

From what has been said and for other reasons, the following are the requirements for a good school desk. The seat should be of such a height that the feet may be placed evenly on the floor or foot rest, while the upper and lower legs make right angles with one another.

Its height must, therefore, be somewhat less than the distance from the sole of the foot to the knee. Hence a royal decree of Saxony demands that for the above named ages the height of seats without foot-boards should be , , 35, cm.

The width of the seat had better be about two-thirds the length of the upper leg, since a person likes to sit so as to have one- third of it extending beyond the seat.

The table below is constructed in accordance with this plan. The little differences in the requirements are due on the one hand to the difficulty of ascertaining just how much of the upper leg should rest on the seat, and on the other, to the fact that the upper leg varies in length with different racial and social conditions.

Kunze, therefore, demands a diiference in height between the front and rear of the seat of 1 to 1. These seats are indeed very comfortable, hut it must not be for- gotten that the inclination of the desk must increase with that of the seat.

The front edge of the aeat must not he angu- lar but rounded, since it would otherwise exert a pres- sure on the popliteal veins and arteries back of the knees, and thus Impede the circulation in the lower leg and foot.

The pressure would also affect the in- ternal and external popliteal nerves and make the leg "go to sleep". Foot rests on the seats are on the whole not to be advised.

The height from the floor must not exceed cm. Foot rests, such as accord with the regulations of Wiirtemberg, of more than 10 cm.

If the seat is inclined strongly to the rear, the foot rest should have a similar inclination. The latter is, indeed, in this case indispensable, be- cause the knee joint would otherwise make an acute angle, thus preventing the free circulation of the blood.

The back rests of school seats are of especial im- portance; and they have accordingly lately been the focus of interest.

Thev must above all meet the re- quirement of conforming to the normal curvature of the spinal column. The latter consists, as is well known, of T cervical, 12 dorsal, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 4 coccygeal vertebra, of which the last lumbar, the sacraL and the coccygeal are located in the pelvis.

Outside of the cervical region, which is not considered here, the spinal column presents the following physio- logical curvatures: As seen from the front the dorsal section is strongly concave, the lumbar considerably convex, and the sacral and coccygeal again concave.

The above requirement presupposes that the back- rest reaches up to the lower part of the shoulder-blades and is in other words a sacrum-loin and shoulder-blade support.

A greater length, which would not leave the shoulder-blades exposed, is undesirable for the reason that it would interfere with the free use of the shoulders and arms.

Nor should a shorter back-rest be permitted. Staffel has pointed out that the low sacral back-rests advocated by Fahrner, Hermann, Kunze, Buchner, et.

The lever with which they worked on the pelvis, namely the distance from the centre of rotation of the seat bones to the point of application of the back-rest, was in fact too short to enable them to have any consider- able effect.

The levers referred to above are now lengthened but not adequately so, till the back-rest supports not only the sacral and lumbar but also the dorsal regions and so the whole upper part of the body.

The Vienna expert school desk commission accordingly requires that back-rests shall be of the following heights: It is best for each seat to have its own back-rest.

In this case the rear row of seats at least will have to have their own back-rests, while those on the fronts of the first row of desks may be omitted.

When we turn from the seat to consider the desk, the so-called "difference" deserves attention first of all.

It can be ascertained by measuring the distance from the seat bones to the elbow when the arm hangs down freely. The arm is, however, raised a little in writing, so that these figures must be increased by a few centimeters according to the age of the pupils.

The following table gives the details: Be- sides, the pupil Clin not in this Fio. Since this is uncom- fortable, he lets his left arm slip from the desk, keep- ing only the right one on it in writing.

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Anti-Bolshevik Bloc of Nations A. An anti-handling device is an attachment to or integral part of a landmine or other munition e. An anti-lock braking system ABS is a safety anti-skid braking system used on aircraft and on land vehicles, such as cars, motorcycles, trucks and buses.

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Anton Casimir Dilger 13 February — 17 October was a German-American medical doctor, and the main proponent of the German biological warfare sabotage program during World War I.

Anton Graff 18 November — 22 June was an eminent Swiss portrait artist. Anton Malloth 13 February — 31 October was a supervisor in the "Kleine Festung" Small Fortress part of the Theresienstadt concentration camp.

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Arlene Francis born Arline Francis Kazanjian; October 20, — May 31, was an American actress, radio and television talk show host, and game show panelist.

Herman Dirk van Dodeweerd born 18 September , known as Armando, is a Dutch painter, sculptor and writer. Armenians in Germany are ethnic Armenians living within the modern republic of Germany.

Munich and Armin D. Armin Mohler 12 April — 4 July was a Swiss-born far right political writer and philosopher associated with the Neue Rechte movement.

Arnd Klawitter born 26 July , Hamburg, Germany , is a German actor of stage, movie and television. Arne Quinze born 15 December is a Belgian conceptual artist best known for his unconventional and controversial public art installations.

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Arnold Johannes Wilhelm Sommerfeld, 5 December — 26 April was a German theoretical physicist who pioneered developments in atomic and quantum physics, and also educated and mentored a large number of students for the new era of theoretical physics.

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Arnon Erez is an acclaimed Israeli pianist and chamber musician, at ArkivMusic. Jeg kan dog ikke huske min kilde til denne dato. Svend Aage Nielsen Publ: Dokumentet er hentet fra hjemmesiden http: De to sogne er dog nabosogne: Fremstillet i Snebjerg kirke den Snejbjerg ligger lidt uden for Herning, Danmark.

Flyttede senere til Silkeborg. Herningvej , Silkeborg, Danmark. Vestergade , Silkeborg, Danmark. Hjemmeside - Kirsten Refn Auth: Urmager i Ringsted, Danmark.

Datter af hattemager i Svendborg. Muligvis skal det staves anderledes, f. Kirkebogen for Faaborg Sogn Publ: Hjemmeside - Tom Stryhn Auth: Han ejede Adelgade 22 matr.

Pakhuset blev fredet , og kendes nu under navnet "Clausens Pakhus". Der er nu bibliotek. Clausen var en meget stor skatteyder, se skattelisten i Nysted Raadstuearkiv.

Han var eligeret borger i Nysted, d. Kirkebogen for Nysted Sogn Publ: I fik han tildelt St. Helena-medaljen for sin deltagelse i felttoget.

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Kirsten Bak Kristensen Publ: I lod han P. Gift med Jens Larsen uden kongelig bevilling. Hvor datoen den Kirsten Gammel Kjesten Jensdatter.

Udgivet i "Historisk Aarbog fra Randers Amt ". Bugge Vegger, afsluttet den Ved ikke om det er rigtigt eller en sammenblanding af datoer.

Tilsyneladende kaldet for Hanne. Mary Ellen Rogers Publ: Udprintet af Mary Ellen Rogers den 9. Sendt til mig med posten derefter. Mary Ellen Rogers ringbind vides andre steder at indeholde fejl!

Detter er vist mere sikkert. Her i Sognet - Sogn: Hans kone - Civilstand: Snejbjerg bye, en gaard - Trossamfund: Peder Thygesen Vium - Alder: Et huus - Trossamfund: Resten af teksten er utydelig.

Efter sigende af engelsk herkomst. Fornavnet er muligvis Anna i stedet for Anne. Student i Kristiania Oslo , cand. Registreret i Oeder i Kielbyemagle Bye - Sogn: Hun ligger for det meste til Sengs.

Kirkebogen for Svenstrup Sogn Publ: Jeg ved ikke om navnene "An" og "Margreth" er forkortede. Bonde og Gaardbeboer - Sogn: Sveistrup Bye - Nr.

Salgssummen er rbd. Husmand i Snejbjerg By fra omkring til omkring Hun var jordemoder i Vester Nykirke Sogn. Student i Ribe , cand.

Fabricius, senere i Utrecht. Han vendte tilbage og blev s. Lars Terpager kaldes i en samtidig kilde "en stor elsker af Danske Antiqviteter og Oldsager".

Lars Terpager interesserede sig levende for Det kgl. Om Lars Terpager hedder det i P. Marts , i stedet for For at skaffe kapital solgte han den Prisen var Rigsdaler.

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You can search through the full text of this book on the web at http: Within a very meagre compass for so com- prehensive a subject he has succeeded in a truly masterly way in telling the reader everything essential, and in saving him from the ballast carried by larger works on school hygiene.

The first section gives a sketch of the history of school hygiene In Germany, and in it the reader wilf find not a few things that are heedlessly passed over by larger works.

In the next section, the hygiene of the school room is discussed including natural and artificial lighting, ventilation, cleaning, heating, and furniture.

I con- sider the limitation of the work to those points which the teacher can observe and control as an exceedingly happy one, the more so since only thus could the treatment be thorough.

The author is here in his special field of labor, where his work has for so long been crowned with marked success. Here we find sketched with superior skill one after another— the hygiene of the nervous system, the eye, the ear, the voice, and the rest of the body.

In everything the author proceeds with caution, distinguishing the ideal from the real, and striving only for the possible and attainable.

I would mention in this connection especially his treatment of mental fatigue, recesses, afternoon sessions, and vacations.

Teachers will find here reliable Informa- tion free from such exaggerations as one so often finds not only on the part of doctors but also of pedagogues who have dabbled in medicine.

Perhaps the evil conse. Yet even so we cannot be assured of the right result unless the doctor, especially the family doctor, is brought into connection with the school.

If the matter is to be properly regulated, it must seek advice from medical science, and this book is warmly recom- mended to school men to serve this purpose.

The a ulhor of this ioteresting treatise is in act not a. Hehasao ugbl tollmlt his study to those hyfcienio condition which eotcd with the teacher aad can be modiBed by b m: School hygiene, j which may be looked upon as a concentration of the principles of architecture, sanitary engineering, psy- chology, pedagogy, and preventive medicine upon the physical conditions of school life, requires more than a superficial acquaintance with these matters, and is in fact BO broad a field that, as an American expert has said, it is more than enough in itself for a life work.

The possibilities of one-sided treatment, also, are very great. It might be scholarly yet not practical, adequate in some parts but wanting in others, or comprehensive and yet without the proper balance, proportion, and connection.

As a subject, Bchool hygiene must therefore be placed high in the list of those in which personality, scholarship, and experience play a prominent part.

The eminent quali- fications of our author,— who is now 60 years old and has given the major part of his life to the work, — and his masterly success in combining comprehensiveness 3 INTEODCCTION with clearness and brevity, and scientific aconracy and moderation with an interesting, forceful, and above all practicul mode of treatment are attested not only by the book itself but by the opinions of experts in school hygiene froni different countries.

Kotelmann was born in This he attended till his confirmation, when he was transferred to the royal padagogiura at Puabiis. After graduating here, he studied theology at the uni- versities of Erlangen and Berlin and received the de- gree of Doctor of Philosophy on presenting a thesis on De Theologia Ariatotelea.

In ti he was called to be sssiBtant pastor and rector of the city schools in Gartz on the island of Rfigen; and two years later he was called to be teacher in the piidagogium and pastor of the castle in Pusbus.

Lung trouble compelled him to give up his position, and he went to Leipaic to habili- tate as docent in Oriental Languages.

The death of his father cut short this enterprise and compelled him to seek some profession with speedier financial returns. In a year he was made aaaiatant in the ptiysiological institute and shortly after paseed the state examinationa and received the title of doctor, this time presenting a thesis on The Midwives of the Ancient Hebrews, a Study from Old Testa- ment Sources.

After attending clinics in his specialty, he settled in Hamburg in as an ophthalmologist, in which pro- fession he has since been engaged.

Of the books iind papers he has written the follow- ing may be mentioned: Die KorperverhJiltnisso der Gelehrtensehiiier des Jobanneums in Hamburg ; Die Viviaektionsfrage ; 1st die heufcige Jugend der hoheren Lehranstalten mit Schularbeit liberbiirdet ; Zur Gesundheitspflege des Mittelalters ; tJber Schulgesundheitspflege , the original of the present translation; and Zur Geaundbeitspflege in den hoheren Miidchenschulen , In , Dr.

This has been the only journal devoted exclusively to school hygiene, and it ia certainly the beat. II The translation is made not from the treatise as published in , but from a copy revised and enlarged ty the author especially for this edition.

The latter ap- peared first as a part of the great Handbueh der Erzie- hungs-und Unterrichtalehre fiir hohere Scbnlen Hand- book of the Principles of Education and Instruction for Secondary Schools , edited by Dr.

Its publication here will explain the fact that it is ad- dressed especially to teachers, and the rather frequent and special reference throughout the book to the secondary schools, though important facts and compari- sons with the common schools and the universities are by no means omitted.

It must not of course he supposed that the dis- cussion is limited to pupils of oar high school or academy age. As is well known, pupils enter the German secondary schools at nine and might gradu- ate at eighteen, though the average age is nearly twenty.

If these institutions have preparatory schools or classes for the first three years of school life, all the regular instruction young men under twenty receive could very well be obtained solely in connection with these schools, and this would correspond in amount perhaps to what a pupil here would secure from our elementary and secondary schools, with the addition of two years of college work.

SCHOOL HYGIENE 5 The age for admission to these schools was deter- mined by the age deemed adequate for beginning the study of Latin, which is abont nine or ten ; and the entrance requirements consist of reading, writing, knowledge of the parts of speech, the four proceases in numbers up to 1,, and Bible history, or what is taught in a common school the first three years.

The preparation might be made in private, in preparatory BchoolB or classes, or in the common schools. The difference between the various kinds of second- ary schools with which the reader will have to deal in this book ia best understood from a study of their hia- tory, and a comparison of the courses and privileges connected with them.

In the following table the fig- oreB opposite the subjects indicate the total number of periods per week devoted to them by all the grades of the school according to the programmes of Besides the above subjects, two hours per week in singing for the first two classes and three hours of gym- nastics throughout are compulsory.

The gymnasinm, real -gymnasium, and the superior real-acbool have nine grades or classes, while the real-school or superior grammar school has only six.

In Prussia and northern Germany generally, these are designated from the lowest to the highest by the Latin ordinals as follows: Lower Prima, Upper Prima.

Graduation from these schools or the completion of a given number of grades confers certain privileges, with respect to military service.

The different kinds of sec- ondary schools are, however, by no means on an equality in this respect. The completion of six years of study in any one of them entitles a young man to exemption from two of the three years of compul- sory military service.

In the nine grade schools one- haif of the pupils leave as soon as this exemption has been secured. With respect to other privileges the gymnasium leads by enabling its graduates at once to enter upon the special preparation for any profession or any branch of the public service.

The real-gym- nasium confers the same privileges except that its graduates cannot, without making up the part of the gymnasial course which they have not had, prepare themselves at the universities for theology, Jaw, medicine, or cameriilistics.

The superior real-school confers only about half as many important privileges as the schools just men- tioned, though it gives the same as the real gymnasium except that it does not like the latter enable its gradu- ates to study modern languages, dentistry, veterinary surgery, or pharmacy at the universities or other pro- fessional schools, and excludes from a few careers in 1 r 8 INTRODUCTION the army and navy unless the applicant passes a special examinatioti on the missing subjects.

Ill The local applicability of a book on school hygiene varies with its character. If there were not an essential similar- ity in the conditions of mental activity and the aims and means of education among civilized nations, it would of course be impossible to write a book that would be directly applicable everywhere.

Aa it is, perhaps the most important thing about the local back- ground for a treatise on the principles of school hygiene is that this shall have been sufficiently varied and es- tensive and shall have been adequately investigated.

Those who have to buy heating apparatus or school furniture will of course need to know the local con- ditions and facilities and must therefore supplement this book by the examination of equipments or cata- logues from supply companies.

This would doubtless in any case be necessary, unless a very special report had been made ; and perhaps all we can ask from a general treatise is that it shall so present its princi- ples that our judgment may not err in our work.

The history of school hygiene affords in this respect an interesting parallel to the history of the same movement in Germany as given in chapter I.

Here as there, we find first of all a recog- nition of the importance of health and strength and an advocacy of physical training to secure it,— notably so by Frantclin and Jefferson in the latter half of the eighteenth century.

While there is thus everywhere an essential similar- ity in the principles and perhaps in the development of the science, nevertheless, there are minor variations due to differences in climate, race, and school pro- grammes.

Thus, Germany, which lies approximately between the 47th and 55th parallels, is as a whole in a higher latitude than the United States, which is be- tween the 25th and 49th, if we omit the outlying pos- sessions; and it has a correspondingly lower tempera- ture in summer and shorter days in winter.

Its winter temperature,, however, is higher than we should espect from the latitude, being about the same as that of the middle section of the United States east and west.

This is chiefly to be explained by the general prevalence there at this season of south-west- erly winds. On the Atlantic coast of North America, the corresponding winds are from the north-west, and in the central parts from the south-west or west; while in summer in all sections.

However, on this point authorities differ, and perhaps the most im- portant thing ia to recognize the advantages and disad- vantages of the different orientations and in the equip- ment of room to make due allowance for them.

With respect to school programmes, an investigation in the high schools of some cities in Indiana showed that the pupils spent about 33 hours per week in school work, which is not much more than half the time spent in the corresponding grades of the Swedish Bchoola studied by Key, and from 15 to 20 hours leas than ia recommended by him and other European authorities as an allowable maximum.

The pres- sure is, however, far from, uniform in different sectiona of the country ; and while there are schools that rival the European in this repect there are doubtlesss others in which much more work might be done without detriment to health.

Whether or not climate, hered- ity, and family training make the recommendations of the European experts for the maximum amount of work per week too high for this country, needs further investigation.

In concluaion the translators take pleasure in ac- knowledging their indebtedness to Dr. Eotelmann for most kindly and efficient assistance and to Mr.

Uardeen for a number of additions to the bibliography and many valuable suggestions. BltlMOl, M w 11 aa tbe h for a: Blackboards ; easels ; map-holders ;- crayon and erasers 16S.

How young should pupils be admitted ; home work ; music lessons ; im- proved methods ; examinations ; cephalic congestions ; school headaches ; nosebleed ; over- stimulated nerves Outdoor sports ; manual training ; sleep Mental diseases ; suicide ; epilepsy ; St.

Correct articulation ; stutter- ing Smith-Lunge air-tester 7G 6. Writing claaa in forward poaition School desk of Elsaesser of Schonau at Heidel- berg Plus — zero — minus distance Pupil with a plus distance seat The " Columbus " school desk The same, arranged for standing Blackboard with roller frame Easel for black-board The same used as a map-holder Map-holder by Lickroth — closed The same, open Eecording apparatus for the Mosso ergograph.

Fatigue curve, obtained with the Mosso ergo- graph Boy with adenoid vegetation before the oper- ation The same boy, after the operation These consisted at first of an advocacy of physical exercise.

I am there- fore Tery fond of these two exercises and amusements , music, and tilting, together with fencing, wrestling, and similar games; the first of which drives sorrow and melancholy from the heart, and the second de- velops the different parts of the body and keeps it in health.

The real purpose is, moreover, to keep people from going into drinking, lewdness, gambling, and dice-playing, as they do now at the courts and in the cities, where one can hear nothing but: This is what happens when these fine games and knightly sports are neglected.

Completa editio prima curantibus Melchiore Schulero et Jo. Wrestling is, however, to be indulged in sparingly, since it often becomes a serious matter.

He believes that swimming is an exercise of small utility, " though it may be very pleasant at times to float in the water aud act lite a fish.

He wishes that all boys and young men. Joachim Camerariua , the friend of Melanehthon, not only advises in his " Maxims for Boys " that they substitute ball-playing, running and jumping, boxing and wresthng, for the disreptutable game of dice; but in his " Dialogus de Gymnasiia " he points to the gymnastics of the ancients as a model.

Humanists, like Sadolet, brought the gymnas- tics as well as other features of classical antiquity again within the circle of common interest.

Camerarius praises the Greek games particularly in comparison with the rough [and [excessive sports of our German.

The teachers of the institution formed an association that year and contri- buted enough of their meagre salaries to found a gar- den which remained in existence for two and a half centuries.

On the surrounding wall is a stone tablet on which was chiselled the names of ten teachers and the rector, Caesar, together with a Latin poem com- posed by him, in which we find among other things: In the largo city school of Wismar founded in , the pupils were for instance not allowed to go into the yard during recess; and they must not leave their seats without permission.

The Jesuits have rendered particularly eminent ser- vice in the field of school hygiene. As is well-known, they were enterprising teachers, and founded not only I schools for their own order, but also academies in , which any young person might receive lodging, care, and instruction.

In the outline of their methods known aa " Ratio et imitatio studioram societatis Jesu ", which was issued for these institutions in by the general of the Jesuits, Claudio Aquaviva, the number of daily recita- tion periods as well as the amount of work to be done by the pupils will be found to have been re- stricted in a very reasonable way.

The schools and boarding houses of the Jesuits were, as a rule, hygi- enically well arranged; and the physical development of the boys was furthermore promoted by good board, daily walks, games, and long vacations.

The respiratory pro- ducts of the pupils, which, he says, naturally rise to the ceiling, were there to he withdrawn by means of ventilators in the shape of movable windows.

The room was lighted from two sides. It was heated by a large tile stove, supplied with fuel from a special store room. Under the table were shelves for tablets and books.

Next to the room was a hall, occasionally used for exhibitions. Zeitsclirift fiir Scbulgesundheitspflege von "j. Fiirtenbach saya of tliia matter: In fact, some energetic teachers have even undertaken military constructions.

He advised parents to give their chil- dren a phyaical culture free from all " semblance of apishness and aeininity", and emphaaized strengthen- ing and training the limbs as an essential part of Bchoo!

Thus he constantly reminded hia teachers of the saying, " a sound mind in a sound body;" while Trotzendorf, as perpetual dictator, had given his pupils at Goldberg the law: Among tbe things mentioned as " unwholesome and injurious " we find: Koldewey, Braunschweigische Schulorduungen von den altesten Zeiten bis zum Jahre The work of Basedow in promoting the physical training of the yonng was especially important.

In his " Book of Methods for Fathers, Mothers, and Peoples" he gives parents still more decided advice; " Wlien the limbs of your children have the necessary strength and flexibility, accustom them in a safe way to SQch movements as may be useful and which are dangerous only when they are done without training.

The principle enunciated in the proclamation Inade in , entitled: Running and jumping is what they like ; and nothing is more unbearable than sitting still.

What can we do in our restricted circumstances to keep them favorably disposed toward the school? Nothing but give the children — a flock of birds without wings — as much physical exercise as the class work will permit.

Goethe was by no means opposed to the gymnastics introduced by Gnta Mutha, Jahn, and others, though he regretted that politioB had become mixed up with the matter.

I want to see the gymnastic halls re-established, be- cause our young people need them; especially so the students, who in their varied fields of activity lack the physical basis and therefore the necessary ability as well.

They show no signs of sound aenaes, or of pleasure in senauous beauty; the sentiments and de- lights of youth are irretrievably lost, for if a, person a not young at twenty, how can he be at forty?

In the second volume of his work: In the first section, he treats of the injuries result- ing from burdening the youthful powers of mind and body too early and too severely.

He urges that boys under eight shoula not be allowed to enter a Latin school, and then only if they are especially talented. Lessons must not begin too early in the morning; they should not last over five hours, and should be discon- tinued in extremely hot weather.

The desks and seats, he thinks, deserve special consideration. They must correspond to the aize of the pupil, and have comfortable and not too perpen- dicular backs, if deformities of the spine are to be avoided.

The author also discusses school punish- ments, home tasks, vacations, and the isolation of auch pupils as suffer f.

The last section is devoted to the " re-establishment and value of gymnastics in public education ". Here he recommends walks, excursions, tramps, and jour- neys, as veil as different exercises and sports such aa playing ball, climbing trees, walking on atilta, racing, ihrowing, danting, fencing, riding, swimming, skating, and bowling.

In order that pupils may be exposed to the least possible danger, he demands the establish- ment of public drill-grounds, and the employment of a special drill master.

He also enumerates a long list of precautions to be observed in the different exercises and games. While the work of Prank diacusaes school hygiene in general, that of the medical councillor, C.

Lorinser, Znm Schutz der Geaundheit in den Schulen. The essential energy of lite is lower; and in the same degree aa the senses have become more mobile and the impulses more impetuous, body and mind have lost in firmness and resistance.

The firat con- fuses and dulls the mind; the second retards the natural development of the body; and the third pre- venta recuperation from these effects outside of school.

He adheres rather to the opinion of J. Even though it occasionally missed the mark, it was nevertheless the alarm gun which aroused slumbering minds to action.

While it was partly rejected by the pedagogues Gotthold, Miitzell, Heinsius, and Kopke, it received the general approval of the physician Foriep.

He sums up his opinion of the matter by saying that the conseqiiences of overpressure can be observed among the pupils; and the cause is to be found in the haste of pupils, teachers, and parents ; and also in the increased demands by the present system of ex- aminations.

Important aid was rendered by the fact that King Frederic William III took notice of the work of Lorin- ser, and in a letter to v, Aitenstein, the Cultus-minie- ter, espressed his sympathy with the movement.

After that, means for removing the evils in question began to be considered; and on June 6, , appeared the famous cabinet order by Frederick WiUiam, IV.

With the exception of the short period of quiescence caused by the political situation of the time, the in- terest in physical training has grown rapidly ever since ; and the field of school hygiene has been steadily ex- tended and developed by physicians, pedagogues, and architects.

Instead of making general remarks about schools and school instruction, men now devote them- selves to exact investigations and the study of special problems.

Parow, Fahrner, Hermann, Schildbach, Kunze, and Buchner introduced the school-desk re- form; and they have lately been joined by Schenk and Lorenz.

Von Pettenkoffer, Breiting, and Eitschel have tested the air in school-rooms. Attention has also been given to the personal hygiene of the pupils and the so-called school diseases.

In the study of eye defects, the examination of 10, school children by Hermann Cohn was epoch-making; and he has recently been followed by von Arlt, Schmidt Simpler, von Hippel, Pfliiger, and Stilling.

Bresgen and Eafemann have pointed out that when breathing through the nose is obstructed, weakness of memory and attention is pro- duced. To prevent the curvature of the spine so often caused by writing, Schubert and W.

Meyer have advocated the introduction of vertical script. Gutzmann have suggested a new method of curing stuttering, and have attained note- worthy results in this line.

There is no lack of comprehensive treatises on school hygiene. Hygiene des Korpers nebst beilaufigen. Bemerkungen, , A Holder.

Baginsky, Handbuch der Schul-Hygiene. Netolitzky, Handbuch der Schulhygiene. Mit Abildungen im Text. Jena, , Gustav Fischer.

Das Schulhaus und das Unterrichtswesen, vom hygien- ischen Standpunkte fiir Arzte, Lehrer, Verwaltungs- beamte und Architekten bearbeitet.

CHAPTER II The Light of the School-room Since we have undertaken to treat only of those facts ot school hygiene which the teacher himself can observe and to aome extent control, we refer the reader to the more complete works of Baginsky, Burgeratein-Ketolitzky, and Eulenberg-Baeh for a dis- cussion of buildings and sites.

In theae the necessary information can be obtained concerning the location and extent of the site and the different parts of the building, especially the foundation, facade, materials, stories, corridors, and roof.

In general, it should be the rule to have the sun shine freely into the room for several hours of the day, if possible when school is not in session.

Since Bunlesa rooms are generally damp and cold, people justly call them unliealthful. We know that on streets which run east and west, the rate of mortality is greater on the shady than on the sunny side.

Besides warming and ventilating, sunlight also disinfects. Pure cultures of most pathogenic bacteria do not grow in the sunlight but soon perish.

Sunny class-rooms are, therefore, to a certain degree, a hin- drance to the spread of infectious diseases through the school.

A southeasterly direction of class-room windows is to be preferred. This provides for the necessary light and warmth from the sun, does not expose the win- dow front to the generally prevailing west winds, and prevents the early and almost horizontal rays from falling into the room.

In this respect it has this special advantage over the pure easterly direction that the sun reaches the room later in the day and leaves it after a shorter time.

We believe that an easterly exposure is, next to the southeasterly, the most favorable, because here the sun shines into the room chiefly before instruction begins and not during the hottest part of the day.

To be sure, we hear the argument that in oar climate even at this time of the year the sky is often cloudy ; that the nearly perpendicular rays of the noon- day sun do not fall far into the room and are leas an- noying than the horizontal light of the morning and evening sun, and that the two hottest months aro mostly taken up by the summer vacation.

Xeverthe- lesB, as a matter of fact, the temperature in the eoutb- erly rooms rises very high in spite of all protective measures against the sun, since the southern wall and the layers of air next to it both become strongly heated.

It would be possible only with an easily regulated heating apparatus to keep the temperature of the room constant, with the win- dows now shaded and cool and now heated by the noon- day sun.

Zeitachrift fiir Schulgesundheitspflege, , No. Giinstigste Lage der Schnlzim- mer. We would not, however, advocate a westerly direction, because as stated above, it is the side exposed to the weather.

Wind and rain would often strike the win- dows, prevent their being opened in summer, and in large cities blow dust and smoke into the room.

A northerly exposure is admissible for drawing-rooms, and in fact to be recommended for this purpose, be- cause north rooms, not being open to the sun, need no blinds.

The light can therefore all be utilized; and it remains exceedingly uniform. If a northerly draw- ing-room is well heated and well ventilated, it is not likely to be injurious to health, notwithstanding the lack of sunlight, because pupils spend in it only a few hours per week.

The natural illumination of the school-room is closely connected with its orientation. For it is evi- dent that rooms facing the northeast, have more light in the morniug than those facing the southwest, while at noon the reverse is true ; and that rooms facing the south, other things being equal, receive more light than those facing the north.

SuflBcient daylight is of the greatest importance to the eyes, and therefore efforts have been made for a long time to ascertain in figures the amount of light in different parts of the school-room.

Seper- atabdruck aua Schillings Journal fuc Ga. In the case C, is a little deyice for regulating the flame, and a small scale at- tached to a mirror.

By looking through a slit oppo- site, the length of the flame, which is to be "2 cm. Along the full length of tube A is a millimeter scale.

In the middle of 5 is a reflection prism, one perpendicular plane of which is turned toward the middle axis of A, and the other toward the ocular h.

At the end of the tube B, opposite the ocular, is a square metal hot g to which a tube i can be attached to exclude light from the sides.

The Hght that goea to the ocular from here fills the left aide of the field of vision. On looking into the ocular one sees to the right only the light which comes from -4; and to the left, only that which enters through the box g.

If the two lights are equal in color and intensity the two parts of the field of vision merge into one with a Bcarcely noticeable line of divi- sion.

To enable the observer to give the light to be measared the same color aa the benzine-light, the ocular contains a slide with an aperture and a red and a green plate of glass, so that the photometer can at pleasure be set for white, red, or green, light.

A white slate, forming a part of the outfit, is fastened to a stand and placed in that part of the school-room where the light is to be measured. The intensity of the light thus measured is computed by means of a formula given by Weber.

The result gives the num- ber of " normal candles " which one would have to place at 1 m. In the accompanying illustration Fig.

Zeitschrift fiir Instrumenten- inade, , Part 10, pp. After the instrument has been placed on the spot to be tested and the lens turned toward the window, the base is made horizontal by the aid of three leveling screws and the plumb-line II E.

For this operation the plate P has to be moved so that the index m at- tached to it points to the zero mark on B. The base is level when the plumb is directly over a given point in it.

By shifting the lens L on the rod s an inverted image of the window sash, the roofs and steeples, as well as of that part of the sky visible at the place under investigation, is produced on a sheet of paper fastened with brass clasps on the plate P.

This paper is divided by lines into 3 mm squares. The reduced solid angle measures only the former, while under certain conditions the latter is predominant.

If the smaller types, which, hj the normal eye can be recognized in good light at a distance of 0. This will generally be true where no portion of the flky is visible.

These dark places are usually near the wall opposite the windows or directly adjacent to the wall spaces between them. Moreover, Huth has shown in a school in Berlin that at a distance of meters from the windows the light was rednced to a thirtieth of its original intensity ; and in cloudy weather it fell below that of one meter candle.

If the light supply is insufficient in a school-room, what can be done to remedy the matter? Sometimes we may leave dark places unused, or else exchange them for others that have more light.

If this is im- possible, we must paint dirty ceilings white, and dark walls either light gray or green; but in neither case should the color be dazzling.

Above all, light must be given free passage through the windows. These must be cleaned carefully, and kept free from paint; and the blinds must be raised as high as possible.

A still better plan would be to fasten the blinds above so that they could not obstruct any part of the window. The removal of vines and especially of trees which shade the windows improves the light in a sehool-rooni very much.

Light can also be thrown into a dark room by means of prisms and reflectors. The day- light reflector by F. Hen- nig of Berlin, the use of which will be explained by the accompanying illustra- tion Fig.

The corrugation increases the surface of re- flection and secures a better distribution of the light. Diamond type was read 13, and Bourgeois 19 em.

In correspondence with this, it was found photometric- ally that the amount of light was nearly twice as great. If the necessary light cannot be secured even by the introduction of reflectors, there is nothing to do but to enlarge the windows.

This has often been done in the schools of Breslau. In Prussia, according to the Royal Technical Building Deputation, the window and floor Bpaces must have a ratio to each other of 1: In Saxony, Wiirtemberg, and Lower Austria a ratio of 1: In enlarging the windows, care should he taken to have the apertures made rectangular, since arched or Gothic styles lessen the window surface unnecessarily.

The top of the window ought to extend as nearly as possible to the ceiling ; and the lower part must be 1 to 1.

Zeitschrift fiir Schulgesundheitspflege; , No. Walls containing windows should be bevelled both on the inner and outer edges, eHpecially at the top outside.

The panes must be as large and the sashea aa narrow as possible. The illumination may, furthermore, be too strong as well as too weak.

Direct sunlight ahould not fall on the eyea or work of the pnpils, aa it will irritate the retina. To prevent this, school -windows should have means of protection either on the outside or on the inside.

Outside awnings have this advantage, that they can be placed according to the position of the ann, and so do not unnecessarily diminish the light in the room.

Thoy also protect the children from the heat of the snn and permit the opening of the win- dows. They are, on the other hand, expensive; and do not last long, since they are exposed to the weather.

This holds trne, also, of blinds and shutters suspended outside from the top of the window frame and held away a certain distance at the bottom by iron rods.

When they are drawn np they darken the school-room more than the awninge do. Common curtains which roll up at the top have the disadvantage not onlj of being usually out of order, but also of letting in light at the sides.

If people, nevertheless, will have them, they must be put up so as to extend a little over the window frame. Better than these just mentioned are curtains that can be drawn up from the bottom by a crank or such as are fastened in pairs at the middle of the window and can be drawn one up one down.

With the latter, it ia possible to leave the upper parts of the windows, through which the brightest sky light enters, uncov- ered, as soon as the sun permits.

Cohn, Cber Fenstervorhiinge in Schulen. Sonderabdruck ana dor Deutschen medizinischen Wochenschrift, , No. Zeitschrift fiir Schulgesundheita- pflege, , No.

Venetian blinds, whose alata can be set horizontally, diagonally, or perpendiculariy, are not auitahle for school-rooms. In addition to having the light sufficient and not too strong, it is important to see that it comes from the right direction.

The windows must, therefore, be in a wall lengthwise of the room and to the left of the pupils. If the windows are ia front, the light will fall directly into the pupils eyes and irritate the retina.

Another inconvenience from windows so located is described by Baginsky from his own experience. Still stronger shadows, caused by the whole upper part of the body, appear when the windows are located behind the pupils.

Coneeqiiently the light from 4 B left is the only proper light, and hence is most I commonly used in higher schools.

There still remains the question, whether light might 1 not enter the school-room from the two aides. They say that with light coming I in on both sides places between the windows and in J the corners of the room are better lighted.

Im Auftrage dea Kaiserlichen Statthaltera eratattet, von einer mediziniachen Sachv6r-. But the facts which they cite to substantiate their opinion, namely, that those school- rooms which had the least number of myopic children received abundant light both from the right and left, we can not admit as a demonstration, because myopia is due to many other causes besides deficient lighting.

Prench hygienists have, themselves, repeatedly called attention to the fact that forms are recognized with great difficulty when light comes from two sides, on account of the absence of shadows.

And lastly, with this arrangement the right and the left eyes are illum- inated differently, which may give rise to the develop- ment of defective refracting power.

Lighting from both right and left can, therefore, be sanctioned only if sufficient light can be had in no other way. Windows both at the left and rear of the pupils should still more emphatically be prohibited except in cases of emergency.

If they are, neverthe- less, in use, the light from behind ought to be checked by dulled panes,]curtains, or similar devices.

All other combinations of two-sided lighting are to be absolutely rejected. This hap- pens most frequently in schools with two sessions in winter, when the first and last periods do not always have sufficient natural light.

But even at other seasons dense mists, fogs, clouds, etc. Boarding-schools must have it, at any rate. The electric light ranks first among the different kinds of artificial light.

It is white, and resembles daylight most closely leaving colors almost unchanged ; it does not contaminate the air; it involves almost no risk of fire; and it can be conveniently handled.

The flicker- ing, which is so disagreeable to the eye on account of the changes in intensity, has in consequence of recent technical progress wholly disappeared in the incan- descent, and almost wholly in the arc lamps.

Eulen- bergs Vierteljahrsschrift, , Vol. Such batteries are particularly serviceable in places like schools where a current is needed on the instant and for a short time only.

The arc light has, as is well known, great intensity and must be covered by ground glass globes, alabaster shades, or something similar.

It might otherwise cause inflammation and swelling of the conjunctiva, and photophobia, with spasmodic contractions of the lids and narrowing of the pupils ; also, hemeralopia, and possibly amaurosis.

Pfliiger, Kurzsichtigkeit und Erziehung. Cohn, liber den Beleuchtungswert der Lam- penglocken. Schlenk describes the apparatus as follows: Un- der the lamp is a closed, nickel-plated aheet-iron re- flector having the form of a truncated cone 33 cm.

Most of the light from the arc is caught by this reflector and thrown on the white ceiling. Many rays also strike the latter directly, and atill more the upper parts of the walls which are like- wise kept bright.

From here they are reflected in all directions and light up the remotest comers of the room uniformly ; and what ia most important they pre- heitsamkeit in Moakau.

Zeitschrift fiir Schulgeaund- heitspflege, , No. Zeitschrift fiir Schulgesundhev , No. The source of light is in this way wholly concealed from the eyes of the pupils.

How bright and pleasant such a light can he I have myself been able to observe in a school in Ham- burg, where the rooms were illuminated not by one but by several arc lamps with reflectors.

Two reflectors with faces opposite are placed on the wall, so aa to make a certain angle with it. The larger reflector has the shape and size of a German studio window.

The focus is in the middle of the smaller reflector, which is made of a variety of transparent materials. Half of the light falls on the objects to he illuminated after a single reflection from the large reflector; the other half falls on the small reflector and ia partly trans- mitted, partly reflected to the larger.

To a person in the room the large reflector looks like a luminous body several square meters iu area with nearly uniform brightness, having only in the middle a somewhat brighter spot.

Zeitschrift fiir Sclinl- ffesnndheitBpBege, , No. The instrument is made either with one or with two are lamps, the latter having the advantage of producing a more nniform light.

The strong points ahont the side reflector are that it gives a diffused light, which is not dazzling, but variable at will, and more evenly distributed than daylight.

While the latter is a hundred times stronger at the windows than at a distance of ten meters from them ; the light from the reflector shows an intensity of Accordingly he constructed hia reflector as follows: An adjustable prismatic glass ring 6 if suspended from this top surrounds the arc, under which is the opal glass shield L.

The school-room receives in this way a well distributed diffused illumination; shadows are insignificant; and the dazzling arc is completely concealed.

The electric light is doubtless the light of the future ; but on account of its costliness most schools will have to be satisfied with a diSerent kind of illumination.

Gas light and kerosene lamps must claim our attention. The gas arc-light of Butzke of Berlin and the similar Wenham light also gives an illumination suitable for jschools.

Both contain regenerative burners with the flame downwards. With respect to the Auer incandescent gas-light, re- cent opinions differ. And this with its far greater brilliancy is the real illuminating body.

One advantage of the Auer burner is that only a small amount of gas is consumed in comparison with the amount of light produced.

Finally, the incandescent burner gives a light of superior brightness, whiteness, uniformity and steadiness ; and produces only a small amount of heat, not enough to cause overheating.

For these reasons it has been recommended by the Prussian cultus-minister for use in public institutions, universities, etc. Since its introduction, there has been a decrease in diseases of the respiratory organs, myopia, and cases of conjunctival catarrh.

According to a re- port by this body a gradual decrease of brightness can be observed in the Auer light.

Its intensity and color, especially when the light is first introduced, irritate the retina; and the frequent explosions of the chim- neys endanger personal safety.

We can say with greater certainty that the Albocar- bon gaslight is not fit for school-rooms. It is true the flame does not flicker on account of the increase of the specihc gravitj of the.

Illumination by means of simple broad flame burners, — such as are often found, either with or without opal- escent glass globes, in halls for physical training, and in corridors, is also to be rejected for school-room use.

The flames flicker so much that, for this reason alone the light cannot be used for reading and writing; and, besides, they lack sufficient brightness.

Round burn- ers properly constructed are much to be preferred ; but they must be supplied -both with chimneys and with globes or shades.

The chimneys answer a threefold purpose. If they have a thickness of from 2 to 3 mm. The upward going rays should be reflected down up- on the pupils desks by globes and shades so as to in- crease the illumination,.

With regard to the use of kerosene lamps, the objec- tion is usually made that too much care is required to keep threm clean and in order; and that books and tablets are liable to be soiled by them because petrole- um vapors condense in the combustion on the cold reservoir.

There is no danger of poisoning connected with them, whereas gas escaping from leaky pipes con- tains, as is well known, the dangerous carbonic oxide.

They will not injure the respiratory organs, as impure illuminating gas will, which forms ammonia and sul- phuric acid during combustion. For a hundred candle power light, petroleum gives off grams of water, and gas ; and, what is still more important, petroleum under the same circumstances gives off liters, and gas liters of carbonic acid.

Renk, Uber die kunstliche Beleuchtung von Bdrsalen. Such a temperature will necessarily prove enervating for pupils and teachers alike.

Fur- thermore, hot flames cause a rapid evaporation of the moisture in the eye, and in this way bring about a feeling of dryness in this organ. They also cause the face to become heated and red; and they produce headache, — all evils which are seldom found where petroleum light is used.

Whether gas or petroleum lights be chosen, the illumination must in every case be so great, that at all places in the room diamond type can be read by a person with normal vision at a distance of 0.

This is equivalent to a light intensity of at least 10 meter candles. Especially strong illumi- nation is required for blackboards, charts, etc.

And, lastly, the lights must be at least 0. Riibner believes this due not only to the high temperature but to the drying of the skin and the more uneven distribution of light and shade than is customary with sunlight.

We are thus led to consider one of the most important topics in school hygiene. Everybody knows that atmospheric air is composed of oxygen, nitrogen, water, and carbonic acid; and that the proportion of these components, with the ex- ception of water, is subject to but very slight changes.

In all tests, where and whenever made, the per cent by volume has been as follows: Lately the so-called precious gases argon, helium, and krypton, which were formerly counted with nitro- gen, have been discovered, and found to be constant components of the air.

It is not, as was first supposed, an ele- ment, but consists of the real argon, a solid, metargon, and a volatile gas, neon.

Outdoor air also has traces of ammonia, and nitrous and nitric acid. The chief cause of this is excretions from the lungs and skin of teachers and pupils.

To this must be added the carbonic acid excreted by the skin, although this is only a hundredth or at most an eightieth part of that excreted by the lungs.

The more the carbonic acid in a room increases, the less readily will it be given off from the blood of the per- sons in it.

K 67 no longer talie place between it and the air of the lungia. On account of this interference with the respiratory processes, anaemia and sometimes the first symptoms even of lung diseases set in after repeated exposures to air charged with carbonic acid.

It is often possible to see, especially in the case of young and delicate children, how a fresh, healthy appearance gradually disappears and gives place to a pale, anaemic color, — a condition traceable chiefly to the impure air of the schools.

The noxiousness of the air is due not only to the increase of carbonic acid, but far more to certain organic impurities given off, partly by the lungs and partly by the skin.

For, on condensing vapors from their own lungs or those of their students, they secured a fluid, which when filtered and injected under the skin of a rabbit produces the following phenomena: They furthermore injected some fresh fluid taken directly from the trachea of a dog into the anterior carotid artery of a rabbit.

Violent convul- sions followed, the activity of the heart and lungs ceased almost entirely, and death resulted in less than a minute.

Moreover, toxic products are contained not only in the exhalation of the lungs but also in the perspiration of the skin.

That the excreted organic substances which have a tendency to putrify are poisonous is shown by covering animals with varnish.

Animals so covered die without exception, because they cannot get rid of the perspiratory products. People properly speak of these cases as cases of self-poisoning, since every ex- cretion has a disagreeable, paralyzing, and toxic effect on its producer.

It is these decomposed organic materials which make the air of the school-room so offensive. It clings not only to the walls and furniture, but also to the cloth- ing of both teacher and pupils, so firmly, indeed, that jtcBnnot alwajB be removed by careful ventihition.

This is by no means due simply to mental fatigue; hut body and mind are so depressed by the aato-toxic products in the air that the ability to work is lessened.

Mental activity relaxes as a result of a bodily weariness, which has all the symptoms of pois- oning by auto-toxic products. In addition to these organic impurities from respira- tion and perspiration, the air in school-rooms contains also noxious organic dust particles.

These readily combine with oxygen, and cau therefore reduce a solution of potassium permanganate, thus depriving it of its red color.

Zeitschrift fiir Scbulgesandheits- pflege, , No. Parts 2 ajid 3. In such air there are generally many micro-organ- isms.

According to his observations one cbra. A pupil would, thus, in a five-hour session inhale 44, germs. It is interesting to note how the number of bacteria varied during the day.

In this gymnasium it was found that in two liters of air, which was allowed to flow through a glass tube lined with peptonized meat gelatine for an hour, there were 38 colonies of bacteria about 8 A.

Hesse, Uber quantitative Bestimmung der in der Luft enthaltenen Mikroorganismen. Mitteilungen aus dem Kaiserl.

The number of micro-organisms is, furthermore, a considerable extent upon the character of the school building.

In institutions with artificial ventilation, Carnelley and Foggie found Kooms which were clean and new had 85, and those which were old and dirty, germa in the same quantity of air.

But the most striting result was that the number of bacteria has an unquestionable relation to the age of the pupils; the younger they are, the more the microbes.

This is probably due to the fact that young children are not aa cleanly as older ones. In connection with this Bobject one needs only make a comparison of the mountain and the sea air with that of the school-room.

On the high mountains of Switzerland Frendenreich often had to examine 2 to 3 cbm. It is the same with sea-air, which is also remarkably free from micro-organisms.

But even if the dust in the school-room were free from disease germs, it would, nevertheless, be injurious to the muGuous membrane of the bronchial tubes and the eyes for purely mechanical reasons.

In comparison with the tender, microscopic, epithelial layers of these membranes, even small dust particles are enormous bodies which are liable to injure them with their sharp edges and comers.

This is the cause of the many cases of catarrh of the bronchial tubes, throat, and larynx, found among those who teach in dusty quarters; and also of the many cases of conjunctival inflammation.

As such, it has been cnBtomary to use the quantity of carbonic acid contained in it. The organic excretions from the lungs and skin found in the air can not be used for this purpose, since analy- tical chemistry haa not yet, notwithstanding iCe great progreHB, been able to give them even a qualitative, much less quantitative determination.

Neither can the number of germs which may be found be used nn- conditionally as a test of the purity of the air.

The distribution of these germs in the air is too accidental and irregular, and depends in any given case on too many circumstances which cannot easily be ascertained.

Carbonic acjd is, therefore, the only means of meas- urement left; and it has many special advantages for the purpose. In the first place, it distributes itself with extraordinary uniformity in closed rooms.

More- over, we know that the oxidizable organic substances and carbonic acid increase in the same ratio ; and, lastly, the quantitative determination of carbonic acid pre- sents no great difficulties, The method employed is generally that of Petten- kofler, A four to six liter flask is required, the capacity of which must bo determined exactly by weighing it first empty and then filled with water, and calculating its capacity from the difference of the two weights.

Glass stoppers cannot be recom- mended because they do not fit tightly enough ; and even cork and rubber would let carbon dioxide through.

Adolf Bernhard Philipp Reinach 23 December — 16 November was a German philosopher, phenomenologist from the Munich phenomenology school and law theorist.

Adolf Uzarski April 14, — July 14, was a German writer, artist, and illustrator associated with the New Objectivity movement.

Adolf von Hildebrand 6 October — 18 January was a German sculptor. Adolf Wilbrandt 24 August June was a German novelist and dramatist.

Adorf is a small town and municipality in the Vogtlandkreis to the south-west of the Free State of Saxony, Germany. Adriaen Brouwer Oudenaarde, c.

Adriano Leite Ribeiro born February 17, , commonly known as simply Adriano, is a Brazilian professional footballer who last played for Miami United.

African-American art is a broad term describing the visual arts of the American black community African Americans.

Agfa is a Belgian-German multinational corporation that develops, manufactures, and distributes analogue and digital imaging products and systems, as well as IT solutions.

AGO Flugzeugwerke was a German aircraft manufacturing company from until Agostino Steffani 25 July February was an Italian ecclesiastic, diplomat and composer.

The Ahnenerbe ancestral heritage was a think tank that operated in Nazi Germany between and Aichach is a town in Germany, located in the Bundesland of Bavaria and situated just northeast of Augsburg.

Aiglsbach is a town and municipality in the Lower Bavarian district of Kelheim, Germany, and a member of the Mainburg administrative partnership, a voluntary resource-pooling agreement with three neighbouring municipalities.

Air Europe was a wholly privately owned, independentindependent from government-owned corporations British airline, established in under the working title Inter European Airways.

The Airbus A is a long-range, four-engine, wide-body commercial passenger jet airliner that was developed and produced by the European aerospace company Airbus.

An aircraft engine is the component of the propulsion system for an aircraft that generates mechanical power. An airship or dirigible balloon is a type of aerostat or lighter-than-air aircraft that can navigate through the air under its own power.

Airship Management Services, Inc. Air UK was a wholly privately owned, independentindependent from government-owned corporations regional British airline formed in as a result of a merger involving four rival UK-based regional airlines.

An aisle is, in general common , a space for walking with rows of seats on both sides or with rows of seats on one side and a wall on the other.

Aki Uolevi Parviainen born 26 October is a retired Finnish track and field athlete who competed in the javelin throw. Ala Littoria was the Italian national airline that operated during the fascist regime in the s and s.

Alan Minter born 17 August is a British former professional boxer who competed from to Albaching locally also known as "Oibich" is a municipality in the district of Rosenheim in Bavaria in Germany.

Albania sent a delegation to compete at the Winter Olympics in Turin, Italy between 10—26 February The Albanian Subversion is one of the earliest and most notable failures of the Western covert paramilitary operations in the Eastern Bloc.

Alberico Di Cecco born 19 April is an Italian long-distance runner who specializes in the marathon race. Albert Einstein 14 March — 18 April was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics alongside quantum mechanics.

Julius Albert Fraenkel 3 June — 22 December was a German physician who helped establish Streptococcus pneumoniae as a cause of bacterial pneumonia and championed intravenous ouabain for use in heart failure.

Albert Welti February 18, — June 7, was a Swiss painter and etcher. Alberto Castagnetti 3 February , Verona - 12 October was an Italian swimming coach and freestyle swimmer.

Alberto Franchetti 18 September August was an Italian opera composer. Albrecht Graf von Schlitz genannt von Goertz von Wrisberg en: Alcohol powder or powdered alcohol or dry alcohol is a product generally made using micro-encapsulation.

Aldo Simoes Parisot born September 30, is a Brazilian-born American cellist and cello teacher, was formerly a member of the Juilliard School faculty, and currently is serving as a professor of music at the Yale School of Music.

Aleksander Tammert born 2 February in Tartu is an Estonian discus thrower. Aleksey Nikolayevich Voyevodin Алексей Николаевич Воеводин born August 9, near Penza is a Russian race walker mainly competing over the 50 km distance.

Alenka Bikar born 7 January in Ljubljana is a retired female sprinter from Slovenia. Alexander Porter Butterfield born April 6, is a retired U.

Alexander Viktorovich "Sascha" Dimitrenko Александр Викторович Димитренко; born 5 July is a German professional boxer who held the European heavyweight title from to Alexander Kanoldt 29 September — 24 January was a German magic realist painter and one of the artists of the New Objectivity.

Alexander Kerst 23 February — 9 December was an Austrian television actor. Alexander Klitzpera born 19 October in Munich is a German former footballer.

Alexander Martin Lippisch November 2, — February 11, was a German aeronautical engineer, a pioneer of aerodynamics who made important contributions to the understanding of tailless aircraft, delta wings and the ground effect, and also worked in the U.

His most famous designs are the Messerschmitt Me rocket-powered interceptorReitsch, H. Alexander Moshe Schindler October 4, —November 15, was a rabbi and the leading figure of American Jewry and Reform Judaism during the s and s.

Munich and Alexander M. Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Zinovyev October 29, — May 10, was a Russian logician and writer of social critique.

Alexander, Prince of Saxe-Gessaphe German: Alexander Prinz von Sachsen-Gessaphe Polish: Munich and Alfonza W. Alfred Harth, now known as Alfred 23 Harth or A23H, is a German multimedia artist, band leader, multi-instrumentalist musician, and composer who creatively mixes genres.

Alfred Hellmuth Andersch 4 February — 21 February was a German writer, publisher, and radio editor. Alfred Einstein December 30, February 13, was a German-American musicologist and music editor.

Alfred Woltmann 18 May — 6 February was a German art historian. Alfred Zwiebel November 6, - February 25, was a German-American landscape, floral, and still-life painter.

Alfried Felix Alwyn Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach 13 August — 30 July , often referred to as Alfried Krupp, was an industrialist, a competitor in Olympic yacht races and a member of the Krupp family, which has been prominent in German industry since the early 19th century.

Alice Bailly 25 February — 1 January was a radical Swiss painter, known for her interpretations on cubism, fauvism, her wool paintings, and her participation in the Dada movement.

Alice Guszalewicz September 21, — October 26, was a Hungarian dramatic soprano. Alice Hamilton February 27, — September 22, was an American physician, research scientist, and author who is best known as a leading expert in the field of occupational health and a pioneer in the field of industrial toxicology.

Alice "Alie" te Riet born August 4, in Groningen is a former breaststroke swimmer from the Netherlands, who competed for her native country at the Summer Olympics in Munich, West Germany.

A operating as Alisarda was an Italian airline based in Olbia, Sardinia. Tour was a concert tour by Kiss, in support of their live album Alive!. Allach, the largest sub-camp of Dachau concentration camp, opened on March 19th, because of a workforce shortage in the armament and building industry of Nazi Germany.

Porzellan Manufaktur Allach was produced in Germany between and Allan Sekula January 15, — August 10, was an American photographer, writer, filmmaker, theorist and critic.

Allan Stone born 14 October played amateur and professional tennis in the s and s. Allen Ingvar Olson born November 5, is an American Republican politician and attorney who served as the 28th Governor of North Dakota from to Munich and Allen I.

Allersberg Rothsee is a railway station situated at km The Allgemeine Zeitung was the leading political daily journal in Germany in the first part of the 19th century.

Allianz Arena is a football stadium in Munich, Bavaria, Germany with a 75, seating capacity. Alois Riedler May 15, - October 25, was a noted Austrian mechanical engineer, and, as professor in Germany, a vigorous proponent of practically-oriented engineering education.

Johann Alois Senefelder 6 November February was a German actor and playwright who invented the printing technique of lithography in the s.

Aloys Fleischmann 13 April — 21 July was an Irish composer, musicologist, professor, conductor. Maria Aloysia Antonia Weber Lange c. It was considered by the Allies to be one of the best in the German Army.

Alphonse Anton Kolb — was a German-American artist known for creating sculptures and other art works ranging in size from medals to statues.

Munich and Alphonse A. Altenkirchen is an Ortsgemeinde — a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality — in the Kusel district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

Burgstock, Zwingerstock, Lorenzistock, Pfisterstock and Brunnenstock. Altstadt is the German language word for "old town", and generally refers to the historical town or city centre within the old town or city wall, in contrast to younger suburbs outside.

Am Hart is the northernmost of the three sub-districts of the Munich city district 11 Milbertshofen-Am Hart. The Amalienburg is an elaborate hunting lodge in the grounds of Nymphenburg Palace, Munich, in southern Germany.

Amara alpestris is a species of beetle of the genus Amara in the Carabidae family that is native to Asia. There have been American Scouts overseas since almost the inception of the movement, often for similar reasons as the present day.

Amorbach is a town in the Miltenberg district in the Regierungsbezirk of Lower Franconia Unterfranken in Bavaria, Germany, with some 4, inhabitants.

Amram of Mainz or Amram of Mayence is a legendary rabbi of whom the following legend is told. Amsterdam Airport Schiphol, known informally as Schiphol Luchthaven Schiphol , is the main international airport of the Netherlands.

Anastacia Lyn Newkirk born September 17, is an American singer-songwriter, producer and former dancer. The discography of Anastacia, an American singer-songwriter, consists of seven studio albums, twenty two singles, twenty three music videos, and two DVDs.

Anastasius Nordenholz - is the author of Scientologie, Wissenschaft von der Beschaffenheit und der Tauglichkeit des Wissens Scientology, Science of the Constitution and Usefulness of Knowledge written in Anastasiya Alexandrovna Kapachinskaya Анастасия Александровна Капачинская; born November 20, is a sprint athlete.

Baconsky June 16, — March 4, , also known as A. Bakonsky, Baconschi or Baconski, was a Romanian modernist poet, essayist, translator, novelist, publisher, literary and art critic.

Munich and Anatol E. Munich and And Thou Shalt Trust Andreas "Anderl" Heckmair October 12, — February 1, was a German mountain climber and guide who led the first successful ascent of the Eiger north face in July Andreas "Andi" Deris born 18 August is a German singer and songwriter, best known as the lead vocalist of power metal band Helloween, and co-founder and former lead singer of German melodic metal band Pink Cream Andrea Bocelli, born 22 September is an Italian singer, songwriter, and record producer.

Andrea Gruber born is an American dramatic soprano particularly admired for her interpretations of the works of Puccini, Verdi, and Wagner. Andreas "Andy" Brehme born 9 November is a German football coach and former football defender.

Andreas Keller born 1 October in West Berlin is a former field hockey player from West Germany, who competed at three Summer Olympics for his native country.

Andreas Klier born 15 January is a retired German professional road racing cyclist. Andreas Ottl born 1 March in Munich, Bavaria is a German footballer who plays as a defensive midfielder.

Andreas Seppi born 21 February is an Italian professional tennis player from the South Tyrol region in northern Italy, who turned professional in Andreas Vogler born January 15, in Basel is a Swiss architect, designer and artist.

Andrei Pavel born 27 January is a Romanian tennis coach and former professional tennis player. Andrey Nikolaevich Kolmogorov a, 25 April — 20 October was a 20th-century Soviet mathematician who made significant contributions to the mathematics of probability theory, topology, intuitionistic logic, turbulence, classical mechanics, algorithmic information theory and computational complexity.

Angelika Bachmann born 16 May is a former professional German tennis player. Angelika Bahmann born 1 April in Plauen is a former East German slalom canoeist and trainer who competed in the s.

Angelo Quaglio the younger — was a German stage designer of Italian descent. Anglicisation or anglicization, see English spelling differences , occasionally anglification, anglifying, englishing, refers to modifications made to foreign words, names and phrases to make them easier to spell, pronounce, or understand in English.

Angst in My Pants is the eleventh studio album by the American rock band Sparks. Animal training refers to teaching animals specific responses to specific conditions or stimuli.

Animexx is a German voluntary association Eingetragener Verein for promotion of Japanese popular culture, in particular anime and manga.

Anja Valant born 8 September is a Slovenian triple jumper and long jumper. Anna Rogowska born 21 May is a retired Polish athlete who specialised in the pole vault.

Anna von Mildenburg November 29, — January 27, was an eminent Wagnerian soprano of Austrian nationality. Anne-Mie van Kerckhoven born 5 December is a Belgian artist whose work involves painting, drawing, computer art and video art.

Anneli Ute Gabanyi born October 18, is a German political scientist, literary critic, journalist, and philologist of Romanian background, especially known for her research on the society and culture of the Cold War period in Romania and the Romanian Revolution of Annelies Kupper 21 July - 8 December , was a German operatic soprano, particularly associated with Mozart and the German repertory.

Annemarie Groen born October 16, in Naarden, North Holland is a former backstroke swimmer from the Netherlands, who competed for her native country at the Summer Olympics in Munich, West Germany.

Annibale Fontana — was an Italian sculptor, medallist and crystal-worker. Anny Schlemm born February 22, in Neu-Isenburg is a German operatic soprano, and later mezzo-soprano.

Das ist ihm und seiner schwedischen Frau Ulrika Toft Hansen wichtig, damit ihr zweieinhalbjähriger Sohn Oliver mit Französisch nicht gleich noch eine dritte Sprache lernen muss. Möchten Sie zur mobilen Ansicht wechseln? Es geht wieder los! Weder für Spieler noch für den Verein…. Letztes Auswärtsspiel des Jahres am Samstag in Bietigheim Keine Pause für Hwang: Der Jährige ist sogar aus dem Verein ausgetreten. Ein Derby schreibt auch Familiengeschichten. Erst nach dem Schlusspfiff ist Rene wieder mein Bruder. Feuer im Sylter Yachthafen Munkmarsch. Ihnen gefällt dieser Beitrag?

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