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Of the estimated 8. The republic was heavily damaged by the war, and it required significant efforts to recover.
More than cities and towns and 28, villages were destroyed. The death toll of this famine varies, with even the lowest estimate in the tens of thousands.
Post-war ethnic cleansing occurred in the newly expanded Soviet Union. Having served as First Secretary of the Communist Party of Ukrainian SSR in —49, Khrushchev was intimately familiar with the republic; after taking power union-wide, he began to emphasize "the friendship" between the Ukrainian and Russian nations.
In , the th anniversary of the Treaty of Pereyaslav was widely celebrated. By , the republic had fully surpassed pre-war levels of industry and production.
As a result, the Ukrainian workforce rose Soviet Ukraine soon became a European leader in industrial production,  and an important centre of the Soviet arms industry and high-tech research.
Such an important role resulted in a major influence of the local elite. Many members of the Soviet leadership came from Ukraine, most notably Leonid Brezhnev.
He later ousted Khrushchev and became the Soviet leader from to Many prominent Soviet sports players, scientists, and artists came from Ukraine. On 26 April , a reactor in the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant exploded, resulting in the Chernobyl disaster , the worst nuclear reactor accident in history.
After the accident, the new city of Slavutych was built outside the exclusion zone to house and support the employees of the plant, which was decommissioned in A report prepared by the International Atomic Energy Agency and World Health Organization attributed 56 direct deaths to the accident and estimated that there may have been 4, extra cancer deaths.
This started a period of confrontation with the central Soviet authorities. After it failed, on 24 August the Ukrainian parliament adopted the Act of Independence.
A referendum and the first presidential elections took place on 1 December В связи с созданием Содружества Независимых Государств which de-jure dissolved the Soviet Union and the Soviet flag was lowered over the Kremlin.
Ukraine was initially viewed as having favourable economic conditions in comparison to the other regions of the Soviet Union.
The Ukrainian economy stabilized by the end of the s. A new currency, the hryvnia , was introduced in Kuchma was, however, criticised by opponents for corruption, electoral fraud , discouraging free speech and concentrating too much power in his office.
Nuclear weapons and Ukraine. In , Viktor Yanukovych , then Prime Minister, was declared the winner of the presidential elections , which had been largely rigged, as the Supreme Court of Ukraine later ruled.
During the tumultuous months of the revolution, candidate Yushchenko suddenly became gravely ill , and was soon found by multiple independent physician groups to have been poisoned by TCDD dioxin.
Activists of the Orange Revolution were funded and trained in tactics of political organisation and nonviolent resistance by Western pollsters [ clarification needed ] and professional consultants [ who?
Yanukovych returned to power in as Prime Minister in the Alliance of National Unity ,  until snap elections in September made Tymoshenko Prime Minister again.
Violence escalated after 16 January when the government accepted new Anti-Protest Laws. Violent anti-government demonstrators occupied buildings in the centre of Kiev, including the Justice Ministry building, and riots left 98 dead with approximately fifteen thousand injured and considered missing     from 18 to 20 February.
The ousting  of Yanukovych prompted Vladimir Putin to begin preparations to annex Crimea on 23 February Separately, in the Donetsk and Luhansk regions, armed men declaring themselves as local militia supported with pro-Russian protesters  seized government buildings, police and special police stations in several cities and held unrecognised status referendums.
When Petro Poroshenko won the presidential election held on 25 May , he vowed to continue the military operations by the Ukrainian government forces to end the armed insurgency.
In August , a bilateral commission of leading scholars from the United States and Russia issued the Boisto Agenda indicating a step plan to resolve the crisis in Ukraine.
In February , after a summit hosted in Belarus, Poroshenko negotiated a ceasefire with the separatist troops. This included conditions such as the withdrawal of heavy weaponry from the front line and decentralisation of rebel regions by the end of It also included conditions such as Ukrainian control of the border with Russia in and the withdrawal of all foreign troops from Ukrainian territory.
The ceasefire began at midnight on 15 February Participants in this ceasefire also agreed to attend regular meetings to ensure that the agreement is respected.
Ukrainians will no longer require visas to travel to most EU countries for tourism, family visits and business reasons.
Now that the long wait is over for Ukrainians, the only document required of them to access the Schengen area will be a valid biometric passport.
Several states have existed on the territory of present-day Ukraine since its foundation. Most of these territories have been located within Eastern Europe.
However, as depicted in the maps here, they have at times extended well into Eurasia and Southeastern Europe. At other times there has been no distinct Ukrainian state, its territories having been annexed by its more powerful neighbours.
It is the largest wholly European country and the second-largest country in Europe after the European part of Russia, before metropolitan France.
The landscape of Ukraine consists mostly of fertile plains or steppes and plateaus, crossed by rivers such as the Dnieper Dnipro , Seversky Donets , Dniester and the Southern Bug as they flow south into the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov.
To the southwest, the delta of the Danube forms the border with Romania. The snow melt from the mountains feeds the rivers, and natural changes in altitude form sudden drops in elevation and give rise to waterfalls.
View of Carpathian National Park. Dawn on South Demerdji, Alushta , Crimea. Typical agricultural landscape of Ukraine, Kherson Oblast.
Kinburn sandbar , Ochakiv Raion, Mykolaiv Oblast. Zuivskyi regional landscape park, Donetsk Oblast. Significant natural resources in Ukraine include iron ore, coal, manganese, natural gas, oil, salt, sulphur, graphite, titanium, magnesium, kaolin, nickel, mercury, timber and an abundance of arable land.
Despite this, the country faces a number of major environmental issues such as inadequate supplies of potable water; air- and water-pollution and deforestation, as well as radiation contamination in the north-east from the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant.
Recycling toxic household waste is still in its infancy in Ukraine. From northwest to southeast the soils of Ukraine may be divided into three major aggregations: All these soils are very fertile when sufficient water is available.
However, their intensive cultivation, especially on steep slopes, has led to widespread soil erosion and gullying.
The smallest proportion of the soil cover consists of the chestnut soils of the southern and eastern regions.
They become increasingly salinized to the south as they approach the Black Sea. Ukraine is divided [ by whom?
One of these areas, in the west of the country, is made up of the borderlands of Europe, where there are species typical of mixed forests, the other is located in eastern Ukraine, where steppe-dwelling species thrive.
In the forested areas of the country it is not uncommon to find lynxes, wolves, wild boar and martens, as well as many other similar species; this is especially true of the Carpathian Mountains , where a large number of predatory mammals make their home, as well as a contingent of brown bears.
In the central and eastern parts of the country, rodents such as hamsters and gophers are found in large numbers. More than 6, species of fungi including lichen -forming species have been recorded from Ukraine,   but this number is far from complete.
Ukraine has a mostly temperate climate , with the exception of the southern coast of Crimea which has a subtropical climate. Ukraine is a republic under a mixed semi-parliamentary semi-presidential system with separate legislative , executive , and judicial branches.
With the proclamation of its independence on 24 August , and adoption of a constitution on 28 June , Ukraine became a semi-presidential republic.
However, in , deputies introduced changes to the Constitution, which tipped the balance of power in favour of a parliamentary system.
From to , the legitimacy of the Constitutional amendments had official sanction, both with the Constitutional Court of Ukraine, and most major political parties.
The ruling on the Constitutional amendments became a major topic of political discourse. Much of the concern was based on the fact that neither the Constitution of nor the Constitution of provided the ability to "undo the Constitution", as the decision of the Constitutional Court would have it, even though the constitution arguably has an exhaustive list of possible procedures for constitutional amendments articles — In any case, the current Constitution could be modified by a vote in Parliament.
On 21 February an agreement between President Viktor Yanukovych and opposition leaders saw the country return to the Constitution.
The historic agreement, brokered by the European Union , followed protests that began in late November and culminated in a week of violent clashes in which scores of protesters were killed.
In addition to returning the country to the Constitution, the deal provided for the formation of a coalition government, the calling of early elections, and the release of former Prime Minister Yulia Tymoshenko from prison.
The President is elected by popular vote for a five-year term and is the formal head of state. Laws, acts of the parliament and the cabinet, presidential decrees, and acts of the Crimean parliament may be abrogated by the Constitutional Court , should they be found to violate the constitution.
Other normative acts are subject to judicial review. The Supreme Court is the main body in the system of courts of general jurisdiction.
Local self-government is officially guaranteed. Local councils and city mayors are popularly elected and exercise control over local budgets.
The heads of regional and district administrations are appointed by the President in accordance with the proposals of the Prime Minister.
This practice was controversial and was subject to Constitutional Court review. Ukraine has a large number of political parties, many of which have tiny memberships and are unknown to the general public.
The courts enjoy legal, financial and constitutional freedom guaranteed by Ukrainian law since Judges are largely well protected from dismissal except in the instance of gross misconduct.
The Supreme Court is regarded as an independent and impartial body, and has on several occasions ruled against the Ukrainian government.
Since 1 January it has been permissible to hold court proceedings in Russian by mutual consent of the parties. Citizens unable to speak Ukrainian or Russian may use their native language or the services of a translator.
Law enforcement agencies in Ukraine are organised under the authority of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. They consist primarily of the national police force Мiлiцiя and various specialised units and agencies such as the State Border Guard and the Coast Guard services.
Law enforcement agencies, particularly the police, faced criticism for their heavy handling of the Orange Revolution. On the other hand, however, it is widely accepted that members of the service provided vital information about government plans to the leaders of the Orange Revolution to prevent the collapse of the movement.
Historically, Soviet Ukraine joined the United Nations in as one of the original members following a Western compromise with the Soviet Union, which had asked for seats for all 15 of its union republics.
Ukraine has consistently supported peaceful, negotiated settlements to disputes. It has participated in the quadripartite talks on the conflict in Moldova and promoted a peaceful resolution to conflict in the post-Soviet state of Georgia.
Ukraine also has made a substantial contribution to UN peacekeeping operations since Ukraine currently considers Euro-Atlantic integration its primary foreign policy objective,  but in practice it has always balanced its relationship with the European Union and the United States with strong ties to Russia.
Ukraine—NATO relations are close and the country has declared interest in eventual membership. All major political parties in Ukraine support full eventual integration into the European Union.
The Association Agreement with the EU was expected to be signed and put into effect by the end of , but the process was suspended by because of the political developments of that time.
Ukraine long had close ties with all its neighbours, but Russia—Ukraine relations became difficult in by the annexation of Crimea , energy dependence and payment disputes.
There are also tensions with Poland  and Hungary. Including Sevastopol and the Autonomous Republic of Crimea that were annexed by the Russian Federation in , Ukraine consists of 27 regions: The 24 oblasts and Crimea are subdivided into raions districts and city municipalities of regional significance, or second-level administrative units.
Populated places in Ukraine are split into two categories: Urban populated places are split further into cities and urban-type settlements a Soviet administrative invention , while rural populated places consist of villages and settlements a generally used term.
All cities have certain degree of self-rule depending on their significance such as national significance as in the case of Kiev and Sevastopol , regional significance within each oblast or autonomous republic or district significance all the rest of cities.
After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Ukraine inherited a ,man military force on its territory, equipped with the third-largest nuclear weapons arsenal in the world.
Ukraine ratified the treaty in , and by the country became free of nuclear weapons. Ukraine took consistent steps toward reduction of conventional weapons.
It signed the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe , which called for reduction of tanks, artillery, and armoured vehicles army forces were reduced to , The country plans to convert the current conscript -based military into a professional volunteer military.
Ukraine has been playing an increasingly larger role in peacekeeping operations. There was also a maintenance and training battalion deployed in Sierra Leone.
In —05, a Ukrainian unit was deployed as part of the Multinational force in Iraq under Polish command. The total Ukrainian armed forces deployment around the world is servicemen.
Military units of other states participate in multinational military exercises with Ukrainian forces in Ukraine regularly, including U. Following independence, Ukraine declared itself a neutral state.
It was later agreed that the question of joining NATO should be answered by a national referendum at some point in the future. The transition was difficult for the majority of the population which plunged into poverty.
Day-to-day life for the average person living in Ukraine was a struggle. A significant number of citizens in rural Ukraine survived by growing their own food, often working two or more jobs and buying the basic necessities through the barter economy.
In , the government liberalised most prices to combat widespread product shortages, and was successful in overcoming the problem.
At the same time, the government continued to subsidise state-run industries and agriculture by uncovered monetary emission.
The loose monetary policies of the early s pushed inflation to hyperinflationary levels. For the year , Ukraine holds the world record for inflation in one calendar year.
The country was also slow in implementing structural reforms. Following independence, the government formed a legal framework for privatisation.
However, widespread resistance to reforms within the government and from a significant part of the population soon stalled the reform efforts.
A large number of state-owned enterprises were exempt from privatisation. Ukraine produces nearly all types of transportation vehicles and spacecraft.
Antonov airplanes and KrAZ trucks are exported to many countries. Ukraine became an active participant in scientific space exploration and remote sensing missions.
Between and , Ukraine has launched six self made satellites and launch vehicles , and continues to design spacecraft.
The country imports most energy supplies, especially oil and natural gas and to a large extent depends on Russia as its energy supplier.
The World Bank classifies Ukraine as a middle-income state. Ukraine has managed to achieve certain progress in reducing absolute poverty, ensuring access to primary and secondary education, improving maternal health and reducing child mortality.
The economy of Ukraine overcame the heavy crisis caused by armed conflict in southeast part of country. As of , according to major economic classifications of countries such as gross domestic product at purchasing power parity or the Human Development Index, Ukraine is the second poorest country in Europe, after Moldova.
Ukraine has a very large heavy-industry base and is one of the largest refiners of metallurgical products in Eastern Europe.
Ukraine is regarded as a developing economy with high potential for future success, though such a development is thought likely only with new all-encompassing economic and legal reforms.
Rail transport in Ukraine connects all major urban areas, port facilities and industrial centres with neighbouring countries.
The heaviest concentration of railway track is the Donbas region of Ukraine. Although rail freight transport fell by 7.
The Euro football tournament, held in Poland and Ukraine as joint hosts, prompted the government to invest heavily in transport infrastructure, and in particular airports.
Other large airports in the country include those in Kharkiv , Lviv and Donetsk now destroyed , whilst those in Dnipro and Odessa have plans for terminal upgrades in the near future.
International maritime travel is mainly provided through the Port of Odessa , from where ferries sail regularly to Istanbul , Varna and Haifa.
The largest ferry company presently operating these routes is Ukrferry. In , Ukraine was ranked number 19 on the Emerging Market Energy Security Growth Prosperity Index, published by the think tank Bisignis Institute, which ranks emerging market countries using government corruption, GDP growth and oil reserve information.
Ukraine produces and processes its own natural gas and petroleum. However, the majority of these commodities are imported. Eighty percent of Ukrainian natural gas supplies are imported, mainly from Russia.
Natural gas is heavily utilised not only in energy production but also by steel and chemical industries of the country, as well as by the district heating sector.
Following the armed conflict in the Donbass, Ukraine was cut off from half of coal and all of its anthracite extraction, dropping Ukrainian coal production by 22 percent in In , Russia accounted for From , it all comes from the EU.
Ukraine has been a net energy exporting country, for example in , 3. Most of the nuclear fuel has been coming from Russia.
Coal and gas -fired thermal power stations and hydroelectricity are the second and third largest kinds of power generation in the country. The share of renewables within the total energy mix is still very small, but is growing fast.
The Economic Bank for Reconstruction and Development estimates that Ukraine has great renewable energy potential: Ukraine has a large and steadily growing Internet sector, mostly uninfluenced by the financial crisis of — As of June, , there were Kearney Global Services Location Index,  Ukraine ranks 24th among the best outsourcing locations, and is among the top 20 offshore services locations in EMEA, according to Gartner.
This number is expected to surpass the , mark by In Ukraine occupied 8th place in Europe by the number of tourists visiting, according to the World Tourism Organization rankings.
The Seven Wonders of Ukraine and Seven Natural Wonders of Ukraine are the selection of the most important landmarks of Ukraine, chosen by the general public through an Internet-based vote.
According to the Ukrainian Census of , Ukrainians make up Other significant groups have identified themselves as belonging to the nationality of Russians Ukraine has one of the most equal income distribution as measured by Gini index and Palma ratio.
The population has been shrinking by over , annually since The birth rate has recovered in recent years from a low level around , and is now comparable to the European average.
Life expectancy is falling, and Ukraine suffers a high mortality rate from environmental pollution, poor diets, widespread smoking, extensive alcoholism and deteriorating medical care.
During the years to , more than 1. In Ukraine posted record-breaking birth rates since its independence. Infant mortality rates have also dropped from This is lower than in countries of the world.
The current birth rate in Ukraine, as of [update] , is The phenomenon of lowest-low fertility, defined as total fertility below 1. Ukraine, where total fertility a very low 1.
Although Ukraine has undergone immense political and economic transformations during —, it has maintained a young age at first birth and nearly universal childbearing.
Analysis of official national statistics and the Ukrainian Reproductive Health Survey show that fertility declined to very low levels without a transition to a later pattern of childbearing.
Findings from focus group interviews suggest explanations of the early fertility pattern. These findings include the persistence of traditional norms for childbearing and the roles of men and women, concerns about medical complications and infertility at a later age, and the link between early fertility and early marriage.
To help mitigate the declining population, the government continues to increase child support payments. Thus it provides one-time payments of 12, hryvnias for the first child, 25, Hryvnias for the second and 50, Hryvnias for the third and fourth, along with monthly payments of hryvnias per child.
In the highest birth rates were in the western oblasts. In total, Ukraine has cities, of them are labelled oblast-class, smaller raion -class cities, and two special legal status cities.
These are followed by urban-type settlements and 28, villages. According to the constitution, the state language of Ukraine is Ukrainian.
Ukrainian is mainly spoken in western and central Ukraine. In central Ukraine, Ukrainian and Russian are both equally used in cities, with Russian being more common in Kiev , [f] while Ukrainian is the dominant language in rural communities.
In eastern and southern Ukraine, Russian is primarily used in cities, and Ukrainian is used in rural areas.
These details result in a significant difference across different survey results, as even a small restating of a question switches responses of a significant group of people.
For a large part of the Soviet era, the number of Ukrainian speakers declined from generation to generation, and by the mids, the usage of the Ukrainian language in public life had decreased significantly.
According to the Constitution of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea , Ukrainian is the only state language of the republic. Of the Ukrainian population, Judaism and Hinduism were the religions of 0.
A survey of the same Razumkov Centre, found that: Among those Ukrainians who declared to believe in Orthodoxy, It recognizes the primacy of the Pope as head of the Church while still maintaining a similar liturgical and spiritual tradition as Eastern Orthodoxy.
The famines of the s , followed by the devastation of World War II, created a demographic disaster. Life expectancy at birth fell to a level as low as ten years for females and seven for males in and plateaued around 25 for females and 15 for males in the period — Significant migration took place in the first years of Ukrainian independence.
In total, between and , 2. Its immediate tasks were to help refugees and prisoners of war, care for handicapped people and orphaned children, fight famine and epidemics, support and organize sick quarters, hospitals and public canteens.
At present, society involves more than 6. Its Visiting Nurses Service has 3, qualified nurses. The organization takes part in more than 40 humanitarian programmes all over Ukraine, which are mostly funded by public donation and corporate partnerships.
By its own estimates, the Society annually provides services to more than , lonely, elderly people, about 23, people disabled during the Second World War and handicapped workers, more than 25, war veterans, and more than 8, adults handicapped since childhood.
Assistance for orphaned and disabled children is also rendered. However, it is not compulsory to be treated in a state-run hospital as a number of private medical complexes do exist nationwide.
Despite this, standards of hygiene and patient-care have fallen. Larger and more specialised medical complexes tend only to be found in major cities, with some even more specialised units located only in the capital, Kiev.
A factor contributing to the high death rate is a high mortality rate among working-age males from preventable causes such as alcohol poisoning and smoking.
As of March the Ukrainian government is reforming the health care system, by the creation of a national network of family doctors and improvements in the medical emergency services.
General practitioners will provide basic care for patients. The patient will have the right to choose one. Emergency medical service is considered to be fully funded by the state.
Emergency Medicine Reform is also an important part of the healthcare reform. In addition, patients who suffer from chronic diseases, which cause a high toll of disability and mortality, are provided with free or low price medicine.
According to the Ukrainian constitution , access to free education is granted to all citizens. Complete general secondary education is compulsory in the state schools which constitute the overwhelming majority.
Free higher education in state and communal educational establishments is provided on a competitive basis. These tests are later used for university admissions.
The first higher education institutions HEIs emerged in Ukraine during the late 16th and early 17th centuries.
The first Ukrainian higher education institution was the Ostrozka School , or Ostrozkiy Greek-Slavic-Latin Collegium, similar to Western European higher education institutions of the time.
Established in in the town of Ostrog , the Collegium was the first higher education institution in the Eastern Slavic territories.
The oldest university was the Kyiv Mohyla Academy , first established in and in officially recognised by the government of Imperial Russia as a higher education institution.
Among the oldest is also the Lviv University , founded in More higher education institutions were set up in the 19th century, beginning with universities in Kharkiv , Kiev , Odessa and Chernivtsi and a number of professional higher education institutions, e.
Rapid growth followed in the Soviet period. By a number of higher education institutions increased to with over , students.
The Ukrainian higher education system comprises higher educational establishments, scientific and methodological facilities under national, municipal and self-governing bodies in charge of education.
Ukraine produces the fourth largest number of post-secondary graduates in Europe, while being ranked seventh in population.
Higher education is either state funded or private. Students that study at state expense receive a standard scholarship if their average marks at the end-of-term exams and differentiated test suffice; this rule may be different in some universities.
For most students the government subsidy is not sufficient to cover their basic living expenses. Most universities provide subsidised housing for out-of-city students.
Also, it is common for libraries to supply required books for all registered students. Ukrainian universities confer two degrees: Historically, Specialist degree usually 5 years is still also granted; it was the only degree awarded by universities in the Soviet times.
It was approved in Ukrainian Parliament on 1 July The main changes in the system of higher education: Junior Bachelor, Bachelor, Master, Doctor of Philosophy PhD and Doctor of Science; load on lecturers and students was reduced; academic mobility for faculty and students etc.
Ukrainian is the dominant language in Western Ukraine and in Central Ukraine , while Russian is the dominant language in the cities of Eastern Ukraine and Southern Ukraine.
In the Ukrainian SSR schools, learning Russian was mandatory; currently in modern Ukraine, schools with Ukrainian as the language of instruction offer classes in Russian and in the other minority languages.
On the Russian language , on Soviet Union and Ukrainian nationalism , opinion in Eastern Ukraine and Southern Ukraine tends to be the exact opposite of those in Western Ukraine; while opinions in Central Ukraine on these topics tend be less extreme.
Similar historical cleavages also remain evident at the level of individual social identification. During elections voters of Western and Central Ukrainian oblasts provinces vote mostly for parties Our Ukraine , Batkivshchyna   and presidential candidates Viktor Yuschenko , Yulia Tymoshenko with a pro-Western and state reform platform , while voters in Southern and Eastern oblasts vote for parties CPU , Party of Regions and presidential candidates Viktor Yanukovych with a pro-Russian and status quo platform.
Ukrainian customs are heavily influenced by Orthodox Christianity , the dominant religion in the country.
The Communist era had quite a strong effect on the art and writing of Ukraine. This greatly stifled creativity. During the s glasnost openness was introduced and Soviet artists and writers again became free to express themselves as they wanted.
The tradition of the Easter egg , known as pysanky , has long roots in Ukraine. These eggs were drawn on with wax to create a pattern; then, the dye was applied to give the eggs their pleasant colours, the dye did not affect the previously wax-coated parts of the egg.
After the entire egg was dyed, the wax was removed leaving only the colourful pattern. This tradition is thousands of years old, and precedes the arrival of Christianity to Ukraine.
Artisan textile arts play an important role in Ukrainian culture,  especially in Ukrainian wedding traditions.
Ukrainian embroidery , weaving and lace-making are used in traditional folk dress and in traditional celebrations.
Ukrainian embroidery varies depending on the region of origin  and the designs have a long history of motifs, compositions, choice of colours and types of stitches.
Embroidery motifs found in different parts of Ukraine are preserved in the Rushnyk Museum in Pereiaslav-Khmelnytskyi.
National dress is woven and highly decorated. Weaving with handmade looms is still practised in the village of Krupove, situated in Rivne Oblast.
The village is the birthplace of two famous personalities in the scene of national crafts fabrication. Nina Myhailivna  and Uliana Petrivna  with international recognition.
To preserve this traditional knowledge the village is planning to open a local weaving centre, a museum and weaving school.
Historical accounts of the time were referred to as chronicles , the most significant of which was the Primary Chronicle. Where Ivan Kotliarevsky is considered to be the father of literature in the Ukrainian vernacular; Shevchenko is the father of a national revival.
Then, in , use of the Ukrainian language in print was effectively prohibited by the Russian Empire. Ukrainian literature continued to flourish in the early Soviet years, when nearly all literary trends were approved the most important literary figures of that time were Mykola Khvylovy , Valerian Pidmohylny , Mykola Kulish , Mykhayl Semenko and some others.
These policies faced a steep decline in the s, when prominent representatives as well as many others were killed by NKVD as part of the Great Purge.
In general around writers were repressed by what was known as the Executed Renaissance. The doctrine did not necessarily repress the use of the Ukrainian language, but it required that writers follow a certain style in their works.
In post-Stalinist times literary activities continued to be somewhat limited under the Communist Party. Literary freedom grew in the late s and early s alongside the decline and collapse of the USSR and the reestablishment of Ukrainian independence in Ukrainian architecture includes the motifs and styles that are found in structures built in modern Ukraine, and by Ukrainians worldwide.
After the 12th century , the distinct architectural history continued in the principalities of Galicia-Volhynia. During the epoch of the Zaporozhian Cossacks , a new style unique to Ukraine was developed under the western influences of the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth.
After the union with the Tsardom of Russia , many structures in the larger eastern, Russian-ruled area were built in the styles of Russian architecture of that period, whilst the western Galicia was developed under Austro-Hungarian architectural influences.
Ukrainian national motifs would finally be used during the period of the Soviet Union and in modern independent Ukraine. The architectural style of the Kievan state was strongly influenced by the Byzantine.
Early Eastern Orthodox churches were mainly made of wood, with the simplest form of church becoming known as a cell church. Major cathedrals often featured scores of small domes, which led some art historians to take this as an indication of the appearance of pre-Christian pagan Slavic temples.
Several examples of these churches survive; however, during the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries, many were externally rebuilt in the Ukrainian Baroque style see below.
Examples include the grand St. All can still be found in the Ukrainian capital. Several buildings were reconstructed during the lateth century, including the Assumption Cathedral in Volodymyr-Volynskyi , built in and reconstructed in —, the Paraskevi church in Chernihiv , built in with reconstruction done in the late s, and the Golden gates in Kiev , built in and reconstructed in As Ukraine became increasingly integrated into the Russian Empire , Russian architects had the opportunity to realise their projects in the picturesque landscape that many Ukrainian cities and regions offered.
An equally notable contribution of Rasetrelli was the Mariyinsky Palace , which was built to be a summer residence to Russian Empress Elizabeth.
Russia eventually conquered the south of Ukraine and Crimea, and renamed them as New Russia. New cities such as Nikolayev , Odessa , Kherson and Sevastopol were founded.
These would contain notable examples of Imperial Russian architecture. Poltava museum, Ukrainian Modern architecture example.
Central Department store in Kiev , Stalinist architecture example. In , the capital of Soviet Ukraine moved from Kharkiv to Kiev.
Previously, the city was seen as only a regional centre, hence received little attention. All of that was to change, at great price.
The first examples of Stalinist architecture were already showing, and, in light of the official policy, a new city was to be built on top of the old one.
This meant that much-admired examples such as the St. Sophia Cathedral was under threat. Also, the Second World War contributed to the wreckage. After the war, a new project for the reconstruction of central Kiev transformed Khreshchatyk avenue into a notable example of Stalinism in Architecture.
However, by , the new politics of architecture once again stopped the project from fully being realised. An example of modern Ukrainian architecture is the reconstruction and renewal of the Maidan Nezalezhnosti in central Kiev.
Despite the limit set by narrow space within the plaza, the engineers were able to blend together the uneven landscape, and use underground space for a new shopping centre.
A major project, which may take up most of the 21st century, is the construction of the Kiev City-Centre on the Rybalskyi Peninsula , which, when finished, will include a dense skyscraper park amid the picturesque landscape of the Dnieper.
Music is a major part of Ukrainian culture, with a long history and many influences. From traditional folk music , to classical and modern rock , Ukraine has produced several internationally recognised musicians including Kirill Karabits , Okean Elzy and Ruslana.
Elements from traditional Ukrainian folk music made their way into Western music and even into modern jazz. Ukrainian music sometimes presents a perplexing mix of exotic melismatic singing with chordal harmony.
The most striking general characteristic of authentic ethnic Ukrainian folk music is the wide use of minor modes or keys which incorporate augmented 2nd intervals.
During the Baroque period, music was an important discipline for those that had received a higher education in Ukraine. It had a place of considerable importance in the curriculum of the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy.
Much of the nobility was well versed in music with many Ukrainian Cossack leaders such as Mazepa, Paliy, Holovatyj, Sirko being accomplished players of the kobza , bandura or torban.
The first dedicated musical academy was set up in Hlukhiv, Ukraine in and students were taught to sing, play violin and bandura from manuscripts.
As a result, many of the earliest composers and performers within the Russian empire were ethnically Ukrainian, having been born or educated in Hlukhiv, or had been closely associated with this music school.
Ukrainian classical music falls into three distinct categories defined by whether the composer was of Ukrainian ethnicity living in Ukraine, a composer of non-Ukrainian ethnicity who was born or at some time was a citizen of Ukraine, or an ethnic Ukrainian living outside of Ukraine within the Ukrainian diaspora.
The music of these three groups differs considerably, as do the audiences for whom they cater. Since the mids, Western-influenced pop music has been growing in popularity in Ukraine.
Folk singer and harmonium player Mariana Sadovska is prominent. Modern musical culture of Ukraine is presented both with academic and entertainment music.
Ukraine has five conservatories, 6 opera houses, five houses of Chamber Music, Philharmony in all regional centers. Ukraine has had an influence on the history of the cinema.
Ukrainian directors Alexander Dovzhenko , often cited as one of the most important early Soviet filmmakers, as well as being a pioneer of Soviet montage theory , Dovzhenko Film Studios , and Sergei Parajanov , Armenian film director and artist who made significant contributions to Ukrainian, Armenian and Georgian cinema.
He invented his own cinematic style, Ukrainian poetic cinema, which was totally out of step with the guiding principles of socialist realism.
Many Ukrainian actors have achieved international fame and critical success, including: Despite a history of important and successful productions, the industry has often been characterised by a debate about its identity and the level of European and Russian influence.
Ukrainian producers are active in international co-productions and Ukrainian actors, directors and crew feature regularly in Russian Soviet in past films.
Also successful films have been based on Ukrainian people, stories or events, including Battleship Potemkin , Man with a Movie Camera , Winter on Fire: Held annually in October.
Ukrayinska Pravda  was founded by Georgiy Gongadze in April the day of the Ukrainian constitutional referendum. Published mainly in Ukrainian with selected articles published in or translated to Russian and English, the newspaper has particular emphasis on the politics of Ukraine.
Freedom of the press in Ukraine is considered to be among the freest of the post-Soviet states other than the Baltic states. Freedom House classifies the Internet in Ukraine as "free" and the press as "partly free".
Press freedom has significantly improved since the Orange Revolution of However, in Freedom House perceived "negative trends in Ukraine". Kiev dominates the media sector in Ukraine: National newspapers Den , Mirror Weekly , tabloids, such as The Ukrainian Week or Focus Russian , and television and radio are largely based there, although Lviv is also a significant national media centre.
The Ukraine publishing sector, including books, directories and databases, journals, magazines and business media, newspapers and news agencies, has a combined turnover.
BBC Ukrainian started its broadcasts in Ukrainians listen to radio programming, such as Radio Ukraine or Radio Liberty , largely commercial, on average just over two-and-a-half hours a day.
Several television channels operate, and many Websites are popular. Ukraine greatly benefited from the Soviet emphasis on physical education.
Such policies left Ukraine with hundreds of stadia, swimming pools, gymnasia and many other athletic facilities. The top professional league is the Vyscha Liha "premier league".
This award was only presented to one Ukrainian after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Andriy Shevchenko. The national team made its debut in the FIFA World Cup , and reached the quarterfinals before losing to eventual champions, Italy.
Ukrainians also fared well in boxing , where the brothers Vitali and Wladimir Klitschko have held world heavyweight championships.
Basketball is becoming popular in Ukraine. In , Ukraine was granted a right to organize EuroBasket Euroleague participant Budivelnyk Kyiv is the strongest professional basketball club in Ukraine.
Chess is a popular sport in Ukraine. Ruslan Ponomariov is the former world champion. There are about 85 Grandmasters and International Masters in Ukraine.
Rugby league is played throughout Ukraine. Ukraine made its Olympic debut at the Winter Olympics. So far, Ukraine at the Olympics has been much more successful in Summer Olympics medals in five appearances than in the Winter Olympics.
Ukraine is currently ranked 35th by number of gold medals won in the All-time Olympic Games medal count , with every country above it, except for Russia, having more appearances.
The traditional Ukrainian diet includes chicken, pork, beef, fish and mushrooms. Ukrainians also tend to eat a lot of potatoes, grains, fresh, boiled or pickled vegetables.
Ukrainian specialties also include Chicken Kiev and Kiev cake. Ukrainians drink stewed fruit , juices, milk, buttermilk they make cottage cheese from this , mineral water, tea and coffee, beer, wine and horilka.
Official Soviet data is not available because the Soviet government denied the existence of the famine. See the Holodomor article for details. Sources differ on interpreting various statements from different branches of different governments as to whether they amount to the official recognition of the Famine as Genocide by the country.
For example, after the statement issued by the Latvian Sejm on 13 March , the total number of countries is given as 19 according to Ukrainian BBC: Russia is the only country possessing European territories larger than Ukraine.
Retrieved 11 July From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country. For other uses, see Ukraine disambiguation.
For other uses, see UKR disambiguation. Show map of Europe. An independence referendum was held on 1 December, after which Ukrainian independence was finalized on 26 December.
Ukrainian War of Independence. Ruthenians and Ukrainians in Czechoslovakia — Euromaidan and Ukrainian revolution.
Further information on the ongoing protests: Timeline of the Euromaidan. Pro-Russian protesters in Donetsk , 8 March Crimea , which Russia annexed in , is shown in pink.
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Learn how and when to remove this template message. List of fish in Ukraine and List of fish of the Black Sea. The speckled ground squirrel is a native of the east Ukrainian steppes.
White storks are native to south-western and north-western Ukraine. Judicial system of Ukraine and Law enforcement in Ukraine. Administrative divisions of Ukraine and Ukrainian historical regions.
Armed Forces of Ukraine. This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.
Transport in Ukraine and Ukrainian Railways. Renewable energy in Ukraine. Internet in Ukraine and Telecommunications in Ukraine. Composition of Ukraine by nationality Ukrainians.
List of cities in Ukraine. Largest cities or towns in Ukraine Geonames. Retrieved 11 April Retrieved 24 April Retrieved on 21 June Retrieved 29 November Retrieved 15 September Retrieved 26 July Ukrainian state register of shareholders.
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Members of the Association of European Airlines. Members of the International Air Transport Association.
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